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University of California • Berkeley 

From the Library of 

Charles Erskine Scott Wood 

and his Wife 

Sara Bard Field 

Given in Memory of 


The Committee on Publication of the Grolier 
Club certifies that this copy of "Two Note 
Books of Thomas Carlyle " is one of an 
edition of three hundred and eighty-seven 
copies on hand-made paper, and three 
copies on vellum; that the printing was 
done from types which have been distrib- 
uted, and that the press work was completed 
in the month of April, 1898. 





FROM 23d MARCH 1822 
TO 16th MAY 1832 







j 976 




FROM 23d MARCH 1822 
TO 16th MAY 1832 




Copyright, 1898, by the Grolier Club 


The Notebooks of Carlyle printed in this 
volume contain records of his thought and 
work from March, 1822, to June, 1832 — ten 
years which in many respects were the most 
important of his life : for during their course he 
was married, and his genius discovered its true 
quality and bent ; he wrote his Life of Schil- 
ler, Sartor Resartus, and many of his most 
characteristic and interesting essays ; he be- 
came widely known as a new power in litera- 
ture ; he was in friendly relations with Goethe ; 
he formed acquaintance with many of the 
foremost men of letters in England, and en- 
tered into relations with the life of the world 
outside of Ecclefechan, Edinburgh, and Had- 
dington. At the beginning of the books he 
is a poor student, without definite prospects 
or decided aims, without knowledge of his 
own capacities, and little acquainted with the 
world or known by it. At the end he is still 
very poor, but with ascertained powers, al- 
ready exercising a strong influence on the 
thought of his time, and with a well-planted 
and rapidly growing reputation. 

The Notebooks display in their irregular 
entries and miscellaneous contents the wide 


range of his interests, the general course of 
his reading, the increase of his intellectual 
resources, the gradual maturing of his mind. 
They contain his reflections upon books and 
men, the first rough jottings of his thought, 
and the records of current experience, set 
down not for the eyes of others, but as pri- 
vate memoranda for his own use. They ex- 
hibit his unwearied industry, and his mental 
ardor, vigor, and independence, while they 
reveal as well the strength of his moral con- 
victions and the tenderness of his affections. 
To one who knows how to fill out the sketch 
which they afford, the character of their writer 
stands plain and impressive in its sincerity, 
integrity, and originality. 

A considerable part of these books was 
printed by Mr. Froude in his Life of Carlyle, 
but, as was generally the case with his tran- 
scripts from manuscript, with many inaccu- 

Although Mr. Froude's selections were ju- 
diciously made, their fragmentary character 
deprives them of a part of the interest and 
value which the Notebooks as a whole pos- 
sess, in their illustration of the disposition and 
methods of their author. The very triviality 
of some of the entries which the books con- 
tain shows that mingling of trifling incidents 


and experiences with serious permanent con- 
cerns which gives to every life a double 
aspect. The deep, constant current flows 
steadily on, while its surface is ruffled by the 
breath of the moment, brightened by the 
passing gleam, or darkened by the flitting 
shadow. The picture of life is complete only 
when the details, each insignificant in itself, 
have their due part in the composition. 

To the student of the growth of Carlyle's 
intellectual powers and the development of 
his opinions, these books afford material of 
interest hardly inferior to that contained in 
his Reminiscences and in his Letters — letters 
remarkable beyond most others for the full- 
ness of their exhibition of the character of 
their writer, for their sincerity and directness, 
and for the union in them of ease and rapid- 
ity of composition with excellence of expres- 
sion. The Notebooks display in like manner, 
if in less degree, the mastery which Carlyle 
possessed over his own faculties. He com- 
plains often of the difficulty he experienced in 
writing, but his letters and his journal alike re- 
veal the mental discipline which enabled him 
to give off-hand an adequate and clear expres- 
sion to his thought. There is seldom an erasure 
or defective phrase in his most rapid and in- 
stant writing. 


apparently I had been altogether much in 
luck in this didactic adventure. Which 
proved abundantly the fact : the two Youths 
both took to me with unhesitating liking, and 
I to them; and we never had anything of 
quarrel, or even of weariness and dreariness, 
between us : such ' teaching ' as I never did, 
in any sphere before or since ! Charles, by 
his qualities, his ingenuous curiosities, his 
brilliancy of faculty and character, was actu- 
ally an entertainment to me, rather than a 
labour; if we walked together (which I re- 
member sometimes happening) he was the 
best company I could find in Edinburgh. 
I had entered him of Dunbar's Third Greek 
Class in College. In Greek and Latin, in 
the former in every respect, he was far my 
superior, and I had to prepare my lessons by 
way of keeping him to his work at Dunbar's. 
Keeping him 'to work' was my one diffi- 
culty, if there was one, and my essential func- 
tion. I tried to guide him into reading, into 
solid inquiry and reflection; he got some 
mathematics from me, and might have had 
more. He got, in brief, what expansion into 
wider fields of intellect, and more manful 
modes of thinking and working, my poor pos- 
sibilities could yield him; and was always 
generously grateful to me afterwards ; friends 


of mine, in a fine frank way, beyond what I 
could be thought to merit, he, Arthur, and all 
the Family, till death parted us." 

The boys had arrived in Edinburgh about 
the middle of January, and the charge of 
them took up the better part of eVery day, 
"from ten o'clock till about one, and from 
six till nearly eight." During his free hours 
one of Carlyle's chief occupations was the 
translation of Legendre's " Elements of 
Geometry," a work to which he had been set 
by Dr. (afterward Sir David) Brewster, who 
was then editing the "Edinburgh Encyclo- 
paedia," to which Carlyle had contributed 
various articles, mainly biographical. 1 

But his thoughts were set upon a Book of 
his own, and he was " riddling Creation " for 
a subject. Early in 1822 he had well nigh 
determined to write an Essay on the Civil 
Wars and the Commonwealth of England; 
not a history, but a study of the national 
character as it' was then displayed, and it is 
with notes made with this intention in mind 
that the Notebooks begin. 

l These articles were respectable compilations, ser- 
viceable enough for their purpose, but of no distinguished 
merit. They have been reprinted in a volume, as a 
bookseller's speculation, under the title : Montaigne and 
other essays, chiefly biographical, now first collected. By 
Thomas Carlyle. London, 1897. 8vo. 


The books have been printed in close con- 
formity with the manuscript. A few correc- 
tions of the errors of a hasty pen have been 
made ; a few careless misspellings have been 
set right, some words in foreign tongues have 
been italicized, some quotation marks have 
been supplied. But the integrity of the orig- 
inal writing has been scrupulously preserved, 
even at the cost of uniformity in printing. 
The words in brackets, except a few which 
supply obvious omissions, are not editorial 
additions, but are bracketed in the manu- 
script; a few words abridged in the writing are 
filled out with bracketed letters in the printed 
text. Some lines, in two or three places, not 
amounting to a page in all, have been omit- 
ted. The manuscript used for the press was 
a copy of the originals made some years 
since, but the proof-sheets have been care- 
fully compared with the original Notebooks 
by Mr. Alexander Carlyle of Edinburgh, their 
present possessor. 

Charles Eliot Norton. 

Cambridge, Massachusetts, 
February, 1898. 

The first Notebook is a volume of one 
hundred and eighty- eight pages of small 
duodecimo size. It has been carefully pre- 
served, but on some of the pages the ink has 
now somewhat faded, though nowhere so far 
as to make the writing indistinct. The sec- 
ond Notebook consisted originally of seventy- 
six pages of nearly the same size as those of 
the first, but to its original leaves others were 
added, of different and somewhat smaller pa- 
per, sewn into the cover. Of these addi- 
tional pages forty-four are occupied with the 
memoir of James Carlyle (printed in Carlyle's 
Reminiscences), and thirty-four with the en- 
tries with which this volume closes. 



Reminiscences by Thomas Carlyle. 
Edited by Charles Eliot Norton. 2 
vols., cr. 8vo, London, 1887. 

Early Letters. 

Early Letters of Thomas Carlyle. 
1 8 14-1826. Edited by Charles Eliot 
Norton. 2 vols., cr. 8vo, London, 1881. 


Letters of Thomas Carlyle, 1826- 
1836. Edited by Charles Eliot Nor- 
ton. 2 vols., cr. 8vo, London, 1889. 


Critical and Miscellaneous Essays by 
Thomas Carlyle. People's Edition, 
7 vols., i2mo, London, 1872. 


Thomas Carlyle. A history of the 
first forty Years of his Life, 1795- 
1835. By James Anthony Froude. 
2 vols., 8vo, London, 1882. 
Thomas Carlyle. A History of his 
Life in London. 1 834-1 881. By 
James Anthony Froude. 2 vols., 8vo, 
London, 1885. 

i822. (at Edin 1 } I suppose.) 1 


Begun while reading Clarendon's History. 

23d March, Quod bonum, faustum, felix, 

1 8 2 2 . 2 fortunatum sit / 

Dr. Burgess and Mr. Mar- 
shal — who were they ? (page 239). 

Oliver Cromwell's remark to L? Falkland 
touching the " Remonstrance " or declaration 
of grievances voted & printed by the P! — 
about the date of King's return from Scot- 
land. Oliver said " they would have a sorry 

1 Note by Carlyle made in 1866, when, at the time of 
writing his Reminiscences, he looked over this volume. 

2 At the date of the beginning of this note-book, Car- 
lyle, twenty-six years old, was engaged in reading for a 
work he had in mind on the Civil War and the Com- 
monwealth. On April 27, 1822, he wrote to his brother 
Alexander: " Within' the last month I have well-nigh 
fixed upon a topic. My purpose ... is to come out with 
a kind of Essay on the Civil War and the Commonwealth 
of England — not to write a history of them — but to ex- 
hibit, if I can, some features of the national character as 
it was then displayed, supporting my remarks by mental 
portraits, drawn with my best ability, of Cromwell, Laud, 
George Fox, Milton, Hyde, etc., the most distinguished 
of the actors in that great scene." Early Letters, ii. 56. 
Before the end of the year the design was relinquished 
under the pressure of other engagements. Id. p. 171. 
But the work done now stood him in good stead twenty 
years later in the preparation of his Cromwell. 


debate " — the thing being so plain j and next 
day when the debate was done and not sor- 
rily — he said, if the question had failed " he 
w? have sold his all next morning, and never 
seen Eng? more " — so near (quoth Claren- 
don) was the poor Kingdom to its deliver- 
ance (247). 

Williams Archbishop of York (formerly 
Lincoln) seems to have been a very queer 
man (p. 272). He wrote a book against 
Laud — what was it ? * 

The King comes to the H. C. to seize 
the members accused of Treason, viz. Pym, 
Hambden, Hollis, Hazelrig & Strode — with 
Lord Kimbolton — all this by advice of Lord 
Digby (p. 280). 

The grant of Londonderry and the adja- 
cent districts had been wrested from the City 
of London (together with a fine of ^50,000) 
by the Star Chamber (first set up in Harry 
7th's time) ; afterwards restored — but, as 
the City tho*, more out of fear of the Par! 
than a sense of justice. This one cause of 
their Roundheadism. 

" Perfunctorily "— "upstart companions." 2 

1 How ' ' queer ' ' Archbishop Williams was appears from 
Bishop Hacket's Life of him, which Coleridge called " a 
delightful and instructive book," but which Johnson, in 
his Life of Ambrose Phillips, described not less truly as 
"written with such depravity of genius, such mixture of 
the fop and pedant as has not often appeared." 

2 Words used by Clarendon. 


25th and 26th Read Milton's Defensio 
March. Pop. Angl. ag* the Def. Peg. 

of Saumaise. Exhibits some 
new shades of John's character — his stern 
detestation of tyranny — his contempt for 
his enemies — and perhaps the ordinary 
tone of his intercourse with them in private 
life. There is a kind of rude wit mixed 
up with his fierce invective. But what aus- 
terity — what contempt for the mere pomp 
and circumstance of things ! He seems to 
tear the unhappy pedagogue into a thousand 
shreds, to trample his remains and beat them 
into perfect mire — and at last he sends his 
soul to the infernal shades. Furcifer, Bipedum 
nequissime, etc., etc. — all the terms of indig- 
nation and contempt which the Latin affords 
are exhausted in abusing Salmfasius]. His 
wife too is said to have " worn the breeks " ; 
& several cuts are made thro' this rent. The 
whole seems very ill-bred: but John was not 
a man of breeding. No newspapers then & 
his work is like the concentration of fifty 
" Couriers " or " Chronicles." Conceive that 
all the Radicals had " one neck " and put 
Gifford to strike it off — what a stroke he 
would fetch ! So is it with Milton. Besides 
Carolus II was then getting settled in Scot- 
land, and M. naturally feared that the good 
work would be destroyed and with it all that 
was worth preserving in England. What is 


the history of Salmasius ? {Les Daciers, les 
Saumaises — Volt. Temple du gout 1 — I must 
see — am very stupid to-night and bilious — 
nHmporte, I must along with Clarendon second 
vol. which I trust will suit me better than the 
first did.) Milton's mode of reasoning has 
something curious in it : he appeals to no first 
principles hardly, but wanders in a wilderness 
of quotations and examples, summoning to 
his aid all that Jew or Gentile ever did or 
said on the subject. Still more is this true of 
Saumaise, who set the example of this species 
of disceptation first — an example however 
readily enough followed by his opponent. Are 
our " first principles " more solid than his ? 
I doubt if they are so much more, as we often 
think. Nine tenths of our reasonings are ar- 
tificial processes, depending not on the real 
nature of things but on our peculiar mode of 
viewing things, and therefore varying with all 
the variations both in the kind and extent of 
our perceptions. How is this ? Truth immer 
wird nie ist ? 2 

Newspapers did exist in Milton's time : the 
first, " Mercurius," was set on foot during the 
Spanish Armada (See Aikin's Memoirs of Q. 
Elizabeth — a book about the weight of 

1" La j'apercus les Daciers, les Saumaises, 
Gens he'risse's de savantes fadaises." 

Voltaire, Le Temple du Gotit. 
2 " Is truth always relative, never absolute?" 


McCrie's Knox — which is no immense 
weight. She * talks of revels, masques, courtly 
vanities, courtly feuds; he of Masses, sol[emnJ 
conferences, synods, books of discipline : each 
in a peculiar solid prosaic vein — hebetia in- 
genia cum aliquanto doctrinae. 2 ) 

I read the Defetisio but "perfunctorily." 
I must read it again, if I persist in this work. 
And Salm.'s too — which is no light matter. 

Fleetwood — first a trooper in the Guards 
sent by Essex to Shrewsbury — with a letter. 
(See p. 21, notes.) 

Stanza by Swift or Rochester on Charles II 
his spouse Katherine of Portugal — 

Here 's a health to Kate, 

Our Master's mate, 

Of the royal house of Lisbon ; 

And the Devil take Hyde, 

And the Bishop beside, 

Who made her bone of his bone ! 

Such is the power of rhyme, and of one 
double ending — certainly indeed the happiest 
possible. (From South ey's travels — the most 
contemptible, pragmatical — Yet he writes 
well now : Esperance ! — I read it 2 weeks 

Excellent description of the Battle of Edge- 
hill — very excellent (pp. 38, 39.) Edgehill 

1 Miss Lucy Aikin. 

2 " Dull natures, with somewhat of learning." 


is near Keinton (Kington) on the east border 
of Warwickshire. 

Proposals — osals — osals, all abortive. 

Second Battle — at Bradock-Down near 
Liskard in Cornwall ; wherein the Parliament] 
forces (under Ruthven a Scot) were defeated 
by Hopton, in the winter of 1642. Indiffer- 
ently described. 

Third battle in March 1643 (on a Sunday 
like the first) at Hopton-heath 2 miles from 
Stafford. P. beat again. 

An attempt at treaty in the beginning of 
1643 at Oxford; then Reading taken. Wal- 
ler (the poet) talked & vapoured much and 
plotted a little for the King — was betrayed 
by his servant, had Tomkins his brother-in- 
law hanged with another, and saved his own 
life by the most abject prostrations, affecting 
to be " awakened " and listening with great 
contrition to various ghostly comforters sent 
to him; then glozing the H. C. with fair 
speeches (for indeed he had a pleasant wit 
and could plead very cunningly & moving- 
ly) he prevailed on the P. to accept a fine 
of £1 0,000, and banish him to the isle of 
Bermuda — not hang him as he deserved but 
for his poetry & pregnant parts. — This was 
in June — '43. 

The great Hambden killed at Chalgrove- 
field, between Thame and Oxford on a Sun- 
day morning, having ridden forth with many 



others to punish Prince Rupert for beating 
up Essex' quarters, an enterprise contrived 
by one Hurry a Scot, who had served in the 
Low Countries, and with the P. at Edgehill, 
but deserted to the K. after — his abilities not 
being as he tho* sufficiently rewarded. This 
Hambden was undoubtedly a great char- 
acter; & his worth has been sufficiently 
acknowledged by the affection which his 
country yet bears to him. Hambden & 
Washington are the two people best loved of 
any in history. Yet they had few illustrious 
qualities about them ; only a high degree of 
shrewd business-like activity, and above all 
that honest-hearted unaffected fearless probity, 
which we patriotically name English, in a 
higher degree than almost any public men 
commemorated in History. After all " hon- 
esty is the best policy." Yet to have seen a 
Caesar, an Alexander, a Napoleon honest — ! 
What a splendid thing — what a difficult not 
to say impossible one ! (fudge !). 

Hambden lingered three weeks — his 
wound was in the shoulder-bone. He seems 
to have been the ablest and best man of 
England. To Caesar, Alex!, Nap. &c. &c. 
we may pause before assigning any superior- 
ity even in talent (whatever they had in for- 
tune) over him — his talents, at least were 
unrivalled in political management ; and for 
virtuous conduct he has no fellow. — Claren- 


don draws his character well (p. 306). Staid, 
sober, a keeper of his own counsel, resolute 
yet meek, generous as the Lion, subtle as the 
serpent. What a " Protector " he would 
have made had he lived ! 

Battle at Stratton hill on the w. side of 
Cornwall, where the P. forces under Stam- 
ford are shamefully defeated (16th May 

Birch's " historical and critical account of 
the Life & Writings of Milton." 

Battles of Landsdown near Bath, and of 
Roundway — down near Devizes — in both 
of which Sir W. Waller is beaten. July 1643. 

Geoffrey Chaucer's house Donnington, 
within two miles 1 of Newbury — in Wilts. 
Glo'ster recovered, and the battle of New- 
bury fought by Essex, both sides claiming 
the victory. Lord Falkland was killed here. 
" Of so flowing and obliging a humanity and 
goodness to mankind, and of that primitive 
simplicity & integrity of life." Men came to 
him by his commerce " to examine and refine 
those grosser propositions, which laziness and 
consent made current in vulgar conversation." 
— Beautiful delineation of his character (p. 
277) : a finer person, as here shadowed forth, 
than even Hambden. — But it is wrong to set 

1 Clarendon says, *' within a mile." 


two such men at variance in their posthumous 
reputation, now when the contests that set 
them at variance in their conduct have passed 
away into the vast and ever-increasing, ever- 
stranger ruin of things that were. How ex- 
pressive is that " sad and shrill " tone, with 
which in the Council he would pronounce 
the words, Peace! Peace! — when there was 
no peace ! I know few finer specimens of 
men than H. & F. What would a man not 
give to be like them ? Vain bargain ! these 
are the favourites of Nature; we are made 
of poorer clay. — F. died in Lord Byron's 

"The learned & eminent Mr. Chilling- 
worth" taken at the retaking of Arundel by 
Sir W. Waller, and so ill-treated that he died 
within a few days (sic scribit). This C. was 
a sceptic finally, having been a catholic first. 

Soon afterwards (29 th March 1644) Sir W. 
defeated the K's army under Hopton & Brent- 
ford, at Arlesford — between Winchester & 

Oliver Cromwell was chosen to command 
the horse, under Manchester head of the five 
associated counties, Essex, Cambridge] 
N[orfolk] S[uffolk] Bedf. Hunt. 1 — Year 1644 

1 " This winter arise among certain counties ' Associa- 
tions ' for mutual defense against Royalism and plunder- 
ous Rupertism." Carlyle's Cromwell, 3d ed. i. 175. 

Huntingdonshire was not of the association mentioned 
in the text. 


somewhat fertile in military exploits. King 
eludes Waller very cunningly at Worcester 
and comes back to Oxford (Essex being gone 
to the west, whither the Queen — then with 
child of the future Duchesse d'Orl6ans — see 
Bossuet's Oraisons fwiebres — had retired) ; 
goes out to meet him; fights at Cropredy- 
bridge (on the Cherwell, Northamptonshire) 
with moderate success (in June) ; follows Es- 
sex into the West, and forces his foot to ca- 
pitulate at Lostwithiel, then fights twice within 
a week at Newbury — the first time, being 
beaten as it seemed, and the second only 
showing himself (reinforced) to deliver Don- 
nington castle in which his old dotard drunk- 
ard deaf General Brentford (Ruthven) was 
besieged. He then went to Oxford. Shortly 
after the skirmish of Cropredy-bridge, the 
battle of Marston Moor was fought (close to 
York on the South), Rupert and Newcastle 
being " on the matter " beaten by Manchester, 
and chiefly by Cromwell's iron ba?id — as the 
Scots all ran like collies (fidem detis ? ). New- 
castle went beyond sea immed. — Rupert rode 
southward; each in a pet with the other: by 
which means Charles' affairs in the north were 
completely ruined. This Rupert seems to 
have been a very boisterous man — brave 
and impetuous — but somewhat too head- 
strong and overbearing. His poor father, 
the Ex-Elector Palatine, Ex- King of Bohmen, 


&c. &c. was in the meanwhile come to Lon- 
don ; had taken the Covenant, and been gifted 
by a pension. (What became of him at last ?) 

Goring the Par.'s guardian (and betrayer) 
of Plymouth (or Portsmouth ?) and after- 
wards the King's general of the horse ap- 
pears to have been a very sufficient cozener; 
there is something very clever in him and 
very original. 

The " self denying ordinance " proposed 
by Cromwell and Sir H. Vane, the object be- 
ing to get Essex and all Presbyterians ousted 
from command. 

Uxbridge-treaty is graphically delineated. 
I would have gone some distance to see Mr. 
Henderson pitted against Bishop Steward — 
the theological democracy of 2xw<na against 
the vain hierarchy of the South. It is very 
curious to see the vehemence wherewith 
those highly accomplished divines of the 
Prelatical persuasion still insist upon the 
continuous transmission of the Episcopal vir- 
tue, maintaining it to have passed (like the 
electric fluid) with undiminished purity and 
intenseness, thro' all the dark and polluted 
periods of the Romish superstition, thro' all 
the Dunstans and Bonars & Gardiners, to rest 
worthily in the liberal and enlightened souls 
of Dr. Marsh, Mr. Tomline, and the like — 
in our own times — and by them to be as 
happily handed down to worthies destined 



to follow. There seems little danger that 
the " Goddess Reason " will ever draw many 
votaries to her idolatry from the followers of 
that creed; considering that it is now 1822. 
Why does not McCrie write a life of Hender- 
son ? Dare he not ? 

Secret history of Montrose as connected 
with O'Neil and the Earl of Antrim (p. 
470 &c). Would not this raid of Montrose's 
make an admirable history of its kind — 
somewhat like the Venice Conjuration 
of St.-R6al? Why has [notj Walter Scott 
seized it! 

Battle of Naseby, where the poor King 
was beaten : here is no bad description of it. 
Curious anecdote of the Earl of Carnwath 
laying hold of the K's bridle — when the 
Guards and he were ready to dash upon 
Cromwell; and bawling out with a loud 
Scotch oath : Will you go upon your death 
in an instant ? which exclamation introduced 
a misconception and a panic; which panic 
" begot " a flight ; which flight &c. &c. The 
battle was fought in June 1645, Fairfax im- 
perante, & Rupert on the other side " a fiery 
ettercap, a fractious chiel." They found the 
King's papers here and published them. 

Strange that such disputes should be 
'Twixt Tweedledum & Tweedledee ! 

After the loss of Naseby every thing with 


Charles went to wreck & ruin. Sir Dick 
Greenvil the Nabal, and Goring the dog kept 
quarrelling & sparring with all men; there 
was nothing but agitation confusion, mis-rule 
& despondency. So that in fine C. retired to 
Chepstow, thence to Cardiff — thence to va- 
rious other places — wandering about with a 
purpose ever-changing, a hope ever-declin- 
ing — his own servants, even his own neph- 
ews, rebelling against him, till nearly all had 
"forsook" him & fled. He was twice or 
thrice of mind to go and join Montrose; on 
one occasion he despatched Lord Digby as 
General of the North, who carried a little 
army as far as Dumfreeze, and then em- 
barked for the Isle of Man, leaving his peo- 
ple to shift for themselves as they chose. 
Disputes in the West ran higher than ever. 
Goring drank and vapoured, wavering be- 
tween insanity & treason, and at length set- 
tling into the latter (he went to France, and 
seemed to aim at selling his army to some 
foreign prince, and becoming a Condottiere) : 
Sir R. Greenvil intent upon stuffing his own 
pantry well, acted even more inconsistently 
than Goring; he levied enormous contri- 
butions, squeezed fines out of every one he 
disliked by imprisonment & hard usage, 
commanded to-day what he countermanded 
to-morrow, and after ruining all was at length 
thrown into prison and allowed to escape 



beyond seas, — when the L d Hopton, to whom 
his army had been delivered, could make 
no stop to the torrent of ill fortune that 
swept away all the royalists of the Kingdom. 
Prince Charles went to Scilly in March, 
1646; his father being still at Oxford and 
trying in vain to obtain a treaty from his 
Pari., to engage the Scots to his side (by 
the aid of Montrevil, a French agent), or the 
Independents, or any one — before he per- 
ished utterly. The Generals in the West 
were Fairfax and Cromwell ; there was 
Poyntz also, and David Lesly who went 
from Hereford to beat Montrose, & after- 
wards returned into those parts, his valiant 
antagonist being defeated at Philipshaugh. 

In April 1646, the King surrenders himself 
to the Scotch army then at Newark which by 
his direction was given up to them; where- 
upon they forthwith marched to Newcastle, 
keeping the K. with g? respect &c. but as a 
prisoner. They seem not well to have 
known what to do: the negotiation for his 
surrender was managed by Montrevil the 
French envoy. The prince meanwhile had 
sailed for Jersey, and thence, after much op- 
position from his Council, into France. 

Third June 1647 King seized at Holmby 
in Northamptonshire] by Cornet Joyce — 
a knight of the needle, who refused to show 
any authority for so doing but " That" (shew- 



ing a large pistol), and carried himself rather 
sturdily than rudely. He acted by order of 
Cromwell, who having been detected in his 
dissimulations and crocodile tears, and se- 
cretly doomed to be committed one morning 
to the Tower, had tho* good to set out to the 
army before light, where he found indeed that 
u the prejudice entertained against him was 
less than he supposed." Charles was brought 
to Newmarket. 

One day Ireton and Hollis quarrelled; and 
the matter went so far that on Ireton's refusal 
from conscientious motives to fight Hollis, 
the latter " pulled him by the nose " (proh 
pudor ! ) and used great plainness of speech to 
him ; which incensed the other officers of the 
army not a little. 

When Charles went to the Scots, old Hen- 
derson turned out like a true man to convert 
him to the Presbyterian persuasion ; but suc- 
ceeded so ill that he was well-nigh converted 
himself (credat Apella !), and soon after died 
u of a broken heart." 

" Clean contrary." 

King's treaty with the Scots was signed in 
Carisbrook castle in December 1647. 

Machiavel " as great an enemy to tyranny 
& injustice in any Gov* as any man then was 
or now is." " A man were better be a dog " ; 
could not " find in their hearts " ; " resolved 
to pass themselves in boats." 



In the summer of 1648, the Scots under 
the Duke of Hamilton made an inroad into 
England, and were defeated by Cromwell in 
the most shameful manner, Ham 11 himself 
being taken prisoner at Uttoxeter in Stafford- 
shire, to which place the rout extended after 
it had begun at Preston. Drivellers ! 

The business of Pomfret Castle is a very 
dramatic affair (p. 147. III). 

The King was beheaded on the 30th Jan? 
1649, and buried at Windsor without pomp. 
He had previously been removed from Caris- 
brook to Hurst Castle, and was conducted to 
Westminster to the " High Court of Justice," 
by Harrison who had once been a lawyer's 
clerk in Cheshire and originally was a butcher's 
son. Prince C. was in the meantime at the 
Hague where he had been left by a part of 
the fleet, which mutinied in his behalf, and 
was then in Ireland under the command of 
P. Rupert. There had been various insur- 
rections &c. the year before; all of which 
were speedily quelled: one in Kent, and then 
in Essex where Colchester being seized was 
besieged by Fairfax, and being taken three 
of the chief officers were shot — Gascoigne 
(a Florentine) excepted, when his doublet 
was already off, and his mind made up to die. 
There are many picturesque incidents in these 
wars. As to the K., he seems to have been 
a very good man, tho' weakish and ill-brought 


up. Cromwell and the rest look much like a 
pack of fanatical knaves — a compound of 
religious enthusiasm, and of barbarous sel- 
fishness ; which made them stick at no means 
for gratifying both the one and the other. 
Cromwell is a very curious person. Has his 
character been rightly seized yet? I must 
peruse the late documents about him. 

House of Peers abolished soon after King's 
Dth. Poor Lord Capel's escape and recap- 
ture (p. 212). Duke Hamilton, L d Holland 
with him, were beheaded. — L d Norwich — 
was he our old friend Goring ? 

The barbarous execution of Montrose (who 
appeared in the North for Charles II. & was 
easily defeated by Strahan — 1649-50) re- 
flects indelible disgrace upon the Scottish 
Kirk. Montrose is almost, if not altogether, 
the brightest specimen of a man ever pro- 
duced by the country. His character is a 
fine sample of the heroic ambitious. 

Scots again smashed to pieces at Worcester, 
3 d September 1650 — Poor knaves ! 

The act of Navigation passed in anger at 
the Dutch about the year 1651 or 2. Where- 
by all ships are prohibited from bringing into 
England any commodity not produced in the 
countries they belonged to. Raynal says this 
act was passed by King James ! — This was 
the beginning of their quarrel with the Eng- 
lish; the mutual spite being aggravated by 

2 17 


various regulations about not " striking flags " 
& so forth. The Dutch were dished we all 
know. See lives of Blake, Van Tromp, De 
Ruyter &c. May 1652. 

Received " a brush " (p. 360 & elsewhere). 
" Ludlow " succeeded Ireton, who died of the 
Plague at Limerick in '50. Was this Ludlow 
the Historian ? 1 

Cromwell dissolves the Par* by Force ; in 
about 3 months summons another elected by 
himself; this (Barebone's Par*) delivered up 
their commission in about 6 months (Decem- 
ber 1653) whereupon he was declared Pro- 
tector — by the officers of the Army, and as 
such acknowledged by all the Kingdom. 
His first Par* was in Sept? 1654, and fairly 
elected — tho' by a rule different from the 
common. " Strange man — don't know him 
— don't." 

Lilburn & Wildman curious personages — 
particularly the former, first a book-binder — 
persecuted by the Star Chamber, which raised 
in him a marvfellous] appetite & inclin. to 
suffer for the vind. or defense of any oppressed 
Truth; then a soldier taken at Brentford & 
ready to be condemned ; escapes, fights, then 
attacks the Par* then Cromwell, by whom he 
was at last tried — acquitted by the j ury . This 
was theCobbett of those days — but howmuch 
better than ours ! 

1 He was the historian. See Carlyle's Cromwell, ii. 333. 


Cromwell dies 3 d September 1658 — a day 
he always tho* very propitious to him — hav- 
ing twice been victorious on it formerly. . . . 

Fleetwood was the son of Sir Miles Fleet- 
wood, and the "troopers of the Guards" to 
Essex, among whom was Ludlow, were all 
gentlemen's sons. (Began Ludlow 9 th April 

At the Battle of Edgehill Ludlow's "jaws 
for want of use had almost lost their natural 
faculty " ! 

Milton to be appointed adjutant gen! to 
Waller. — When did Cromwell & Fairfax 
march thro' the city to quell Brown & Massy ? 
"Progging" "Gobbet." 

Saturday I have now finished the third 
13 th April, volume of Clarendon — of which 
more afterwards ; and the whole 
of Ludlow's Memoirs, concerning which I can 
make only a few vague remarks, having read it 
hastily & without great study. Ludlow is not 
a man of great parts ; but he describes with a 
ready a modest & a graphic pencil, the scenes 
in which he took part, presenting a distinct tho' 
narrow sketch of what himself accomplished 
in his walk thro' that confused riot, and of 
what he saw in it on looking to the right hand 
and to the left. He differs in no important 
fact from Clarendon; and impresses us with 
an idea of his frank ingenuousness at least 



equal to that of his rival; while his stern sense 
of honesty, his unflinching adherence to prin- 
ciple thro' good and thro' bad report, his dis- 
dain of truckling alike to the open enemies 
as to the unworthy friends of republicanism, 
tend to inspire us with a higher respect for 
his heart & mind, than all the ingenious 
speculation and shrewd watchful sagacity of 
Clarendon can inspire us with for the mental 
gifts which they presuppose. I admire Lud- 
low's patient unaffected calmness very highly. 
Neither Russell nor Sidney were better men. 
Did he blanch before the Royalists at Ox- 
ford ? before Cromwell at London ? before 
Monk & the new " Convention " ? And 
when he fled to Vevay — tho' banished from 
his friends his country his wife his property 
and cheated of his just fame, and daily beset 
with barbarous assassins in a far land — does 
he whine or make lament? Compare him 
with Rousseau or Ovid or Necker — he is 
like a pillar of marble compared with a weep- 
ing willow. How was it such noble minds 
were generated in those times ? I know not 
but think it well worth inquiring into. — Lud- 
low writes rather prettily; he describes graph- 
ically the siege of Wardour Castle, the " fir- 
ing" of a castle in Ireland; the troopers at 
Marston Moor; &c. His best description 
however, & that unconsciously, is of himself. — 
Would it not be right to make out a list of 


the chief personages of that period as well as 
the chief events ? 

Ellwood's Life of himself — Read it for 
the sake of Milton to whom this person was 
Reader of Latin at one time ; but found no- 
thing therein beyond what is recorded in my 
own Milton. Found however something ad- 
vantageous and amusing, which I did not at 
all anticipate — a picture of human nature 
under a somewhat new aspect, delineated 
with great liveliness & simplicity & clearness. 
Ellwood seems to have been a cheerful quick 
pure-minded rather clever little fellow. His 
fanaticism is of a curious species : it is obsti- 
nacy & enthusiasm without any moroseness 
or rancour. He suffered persecutions out of 
number, but cherished no revenge against the 
authors of them ; his share of worldly com- 
fort was small in comparison of what he once 
might have hoped for; but his heart was 
clear & healthful, and his life may justly be 
called happy notwithstanding. What made 
it so ? How came he to shew so complete 
and consistent & respectable a walk and con- 
versation amid so many drawbacks & ob- 
structions? His creed was his support, his 
all in all. Is it better then to have a straight 
road formed for us, tho' a false one, thro' this 
confused wilderness of things — than to be 
waiting asking searching for a true one, if we 
never find it altogether ? Compare Ellwood, 



a weak man, with Alfieri, Goethe, Voltaire, 
strong men ; & award the palm ! What is the 
proper province of Reason ? 

For the rest Ellwood's book is very amus- 
ing. It affords a vivid tho' a brief glimpse 
of English life in the middle & religious walks 
of it, during the reign of Charles II. One 
reads it like a kind of Novel. 

Milton's history of Britain. The first part 
of this is very beautiful — one simile about a 
traveller setting out amid " smooth & idle 
dreams " equal to anything I know of. * For 
fine composition in matter & form see also 
the first invasion of Anglesea, and the revolt 
of Boadicea. The style is very Latinish, tho' 
also very perspicuous : the prejudice against 
woman-rule breaks out on all occasions; 
some views too of Particular providence, 
which did he really entertain? Invocation 
at the beginning. On the whole, however, 
it is unphilosophically composed. The Saxon 
period cannot be better — so cannot be well- 
related by any person upon this plan. Per- 
haps the moderns have improved in their 
mode of writing history. (See Stewart's life of 
Robertson ?) Milton's history is like a stone- 

1 " By this time, like one who had set out on his way by 
night, and travail'd through a Region of smooth or idle 
Dreams, our History now arrives on the Confines, where 
day-light and truth meet us with a cleer dawn, represent- 
ing to our view, though at a farr distance, true colours 
and shapes."— Book i. ad Jin. 


dike of ugly whinstones, numberless, shape- 
less, joined together with the finest Roman 
cement. They were not worth the pains ; ma- 
teriem super at opus : better to have left the 
cairn as he found it in Hoveden, Mat[thew 
of] Westminster], Simeon of Durham, Hunt- 
ington, &c. Here follow some agates picked 
from it. 

Estrildis (a small tragedy ?) & her daughter 
Sabra p. 8. " Severn swift guilty of maiden's 
death." 1 Boadicea (do ?) p. 28 — She was of 
the Iceni about Norwich. A wild Semiramis. 
Has not some one sung of her ? 2 

Edwin p. 60. his conversion to Christian- 
ity (another?) — his wavering fortunes, vis- 
ions, loves, ultimate success — " Harryed the 
coast" — "felled him" — "to chronicle the 
wars of kites & crows fighting & flocking in 
the air " — the sceptre found " too hot " for 
a man's hand. 

Christianity tho! to have come hither A.D. 

Monday 15 th April I have this moment fin- 
1 \y 2 o'clock P. M. ished the perusal of Mil- 
ton's first publication, 
entitled " Of Reformation &c." Had he writ- 
ten nothing else whatever, it would have 

l Milton, "At a Vacation Exercise," v. 96. 
2 Perhaps Carlyle had in mind Cowper's so-called Ode, 
entitled " Boadicea." 



stamped his name with the ineffaceable im- 
press of genius, and shewn him to all the 
world as a man no less high & solemn in his 
moral nature than rare and richly gifted in his 
intellectual powers. There are pieces of as 
sublime eloquence here as I ever saw: the 
learning of the piece is great, and the logic of 
it powerful & as well ordered as in an oration 
is needful. He begins by alluding to the cor- 
ruptions of the church j then hails the reforma- 
tion in a beautiful sentence (p. 250), and tries 
to point out why it was less complete in Eng- 
land than elsewhere. Solemn protestation 
(252). Next comes the main gist of the per- 
formance, the reasons that obstruct improve- 
ment at this time. The enemies of it are 
divided into three classes the Antiquitarians, 
the Libertines, the Politicians. Th e t wo former 
are discussed in the first book. Difference in 
the power & dignity of ancient from those of 
modern bishops — besides, the Fathers full of 
errors — their works garbled — their example 
therefore unbinding even when Constantine 
had united the civil to the eccles. power. " How 
then should the dim taper" (257). Besides 
themselves refer to the Bible as all sufficient — 
" homely & y eomanly religion " — Truth — Un- 
derstanding (p. 260). " Wherefore should they 
not urge only the Gospel, & hold it ever in 
their faces like a mirror of Diamond till it 
dazzle and pierce their misty eyeballs" (p. 


261). — Libertines not convincible. — Figures 
in the II? Book about vulgar politics. The 
Pope's & clergy's small favour to monarchy- 
shown by various instances. Rude fable of 
a wen (p. 266). Their measures banish many 
subjects, corrupt & irritate the rest — de- 
stroy much revenue, and so disafFect Eng- 
lishmen — unfitted for peace now make 
war. Objections answered — Excommuni- 
cation (272-3). Exuberant & felicitous 
sarcasm (273). Majestic peroration in the 
form of a prayer. 

progging, fobbing, rooking, sconced, — 
greasy palm — unctuous paunches — fiery 
whip — blood diverted from the veins to the 
ulcers — &c. Heu quantum ab Mo / 

Second pamphlet — " Of Prelatical Epis- 
copacy " against Usher. Judges of the Insuffi- 
ciency of their " traditional ware " with the skill 
and indifferentism of a complete connoisseur — 
acquainted with this & with other sources of 
truth far purer. Little order — being a reply 
rather than an oration. " Drag-net " of 
time (p. 239). Fine simile of the robe of 
truth & the rags of time's garment (p. 242). 

Brerewood — what of him? (p. 201). 

Barclay his "Image of minds"? (217). 1 

IJohn Barclay, best known by his Argents, extrava- 
gantly praised by Coleridge {Lectures on Shakespeare, with 
other Literary Remarks, 1849, ii, 236). His Icon Anima- 
rum" Image of Minds," " a delineation of the genius and 
customs of the European nation," was published in 1614. 



The " sovran treacle of sound doctrine " 
(235). " Lin pealing," leave pealing p. 236. 

These latter extracts are from " The Reason 
of Church Gov*," Milton's third pamphlet, 
which I have just concluded, after many in- 
terruptions (22 nd April — Saturday) particu- 
larly to-day, when idlers not a few have been 
here to consume my hours vainly. — The 
general character of this tract is vigour of 
feeling & thought, clothed in a garb of 
rich metaphorical and emphatic language — 
presenting a few large views of polity and 
morals, and much indignant aversion for 
everything connected with the sordid carnal- 
ity & worldlymindedness of Prelates & their 

The first part is argumentative in the strict 
sense; endeavoring to prove 1? that a govern- 
ment is established for the Church by divine 
Wisdom, and that either Episcopacy or Pres- 
bytery (which latter point is avowedly as- 
sumed without demonstration); 2? that no 
argument can be drawn from Moses in favour 
of E. ; 3? that it does not prevent schisms but 
breeds them &c. The second book opens 
with a fine exordium on the Author's own 
studies and aspirations — by way of apology 
for engaging in the controversy — then pro- 
ceeds to shew that Prelacy both in the spirit 
& form is clean contrary to the religion of 
the Gospel. — There are many fine ideas 



& fine delineations scattered thro'out; but 
the thread of reasoning is not very easily fol- 
lowed — partly perhaps because the whole 
matter has long ago ceased to be a subject of 
discussion or interest among men, & so to 
be capable easily of arresting the attention 
enough. It is only where we gain a brief 
glimpse of the vast & sweeping ocean of 
Milton's mind, with all its wonders, its curi- 
ous fata morganas & stately navies & majes- 
tic scenery (wretched figure !) that we feel a 
complete participation in the beauties of the 
composition. I never saw so eloquent a 
person. What boundless store of metaphors ! 
What infinitude of thoughts ! What strong 
& continuous fervour of soul! — Upon the 
whole however I am only beginning to see 
Milton : I must have him far more intimately 
present to me, must feel as it were with his 
great spirit — or it will never do. The men 
Symmons & Hayley 1 praise him loudly 
enough — but it is nearly all flattery. I like 
Hayley better : he is better-natured & almost 
as readable a kind of person as his rival. In- 
deed neither of them pass in this last quality ; 
& Symmons is a very egotistical, pragmatical, 
verse-scanning, gerund-grinding pert senti- 
mental little companion : I love him not. 
" Axle of Discipline " (p. 202. — Milton no 

1 Hayley's Life of Milton was first published in 1794, 
Symmons's in 1806. 



leveller or Radical). — fine comparison about 
the formation of a statue & that of any great 
social improvement — both leave chips & 
rubbish (p. 217) — Merchandize of Truth — 
good (p. 219) — likening of the King to 
Samson — good (p. 237). — bitter conclusion. 

N. B. I am far too much of a critic — too 
little of an artificer in all points ; always ask- 
ing How ? or only saying Thus — No af- 
fectation ! True feeling once — always true 

The last two pamphlets of the year 1641 
are "Animadversions on the Remonstrant's 
defence of Smectymnuus " and the " Apology 
for Sm." The first proceeds by way of ex- 
tract and rejoinder; its aim is satire fully more 
than argument. Milton's wit is sometimes 
pungent, always unaffected, frequently not of 
the finest. The Apology is written in a more 
serious style; it contains many interesting 
developments of the Author's own feelings 
& purposes & history & hopes. It is written 
with more equality than any of the former 
treatises; and distinguished for a stately 
march of eloquent ratiocination dressed out 
in a rich and royal wardrobe of beautiful 
metaphors & honourable staid enthusiasm. — 
I am now at the "Divorce." (Must it 1 be 

1 " It," that is, the book which Carlyle was thinking of 


sketches of English character generally, dur- 
ing the Commonwealth? Containing por- 
traits of Milton, Cromwell, Fox, Hyde, &c, 
in the manner of De StaeFs Allemagne. The 
spirit is willing — but ah ! the flesh — !) 

Prynne's Histrio-Mastix (should see it). 
Sir James Harrington. Who was Au[thor] 
of " Oceana " ? 

Foot soldiers gave "four-pence a-piece." 
(Cromwell's life. 1 18) — poor fellows ! 

Sir J. Burrow's Anecdotes of Cromwell — 
Dugdale, Bates, Harris. 

Milton's " Areopagitica " — just perused 
(6th May — after a long bout with Crom- 
well's life, &c.) : it is a stately grave & dig- 
nified oration in the manner of the ancients ; 
contains a fair shew of candid argument, 
generous feeling ; and is decked out with the 
usual unrivalled richness of style, by which 
this author is distinguished from all others. 
What I desiderate in Milton is luminousness 
of arrangement : he never reasons systemati- 
cally, clearing all the ground before him as 
he goes, and collecting all the scattered 
brigades of his arguments to the final assault. 
It is quite clear that he never studied mathe- 
matics very deeply, or political economy — 
or any subject merely logical. Even in this 
Areopagitica splendid & powerful as it is, I 
am clearly of opinion that Brougham or any 
such person could discuss a similar subject 



with more practical effect in the way of per- 
suasion, than Milton with all his noble elo- 
quence. The perusal of these old giants, 
and the infirm appearance of their most ven- 
erable structures in the department of phi- 
losophy & controversy ought surely to make 
us humble in our estimate of human Reason. 
How is it ? The art of Logic seems to come 
& go & change like the fashion of clothes 
from age to age ! 

As to this metaphorical talent, it is the first 
characteristic of genius — tho' not the only 
or an indispensable one, see Alfieri. It de- 
notes an inward eye quick to perceive the 
relations & analogies of things; a ready 
memory to furnish them when occasion de- 
mands; and a sense of propriety & beauty 
to select what is best, from the immense store 
so furnished. There is far far more in it than 
this : but what — I have not time or power 
to say. 

The plan of this Areopagitica (not rigidly 
adhered to) is fourfold — first that no worthy 
community ever adhered to it ; 1 secondly that 
reading many bad books is often useful; 
thirdly that one might as well license fiddlers, 
tailors &c. &c. as printers ; fourth the harm it 
does. There is no great felicity in this arrange- 
ment — but in executing it very very much. 

1 " Ever adhered to it," that is, to the prohibition and 
licensing of books. 



" Not he who takes up arms for cote and 
conduct, 1 and his four nobles of Dunegelt." 
There is the " eagle muing " again. There 
is a highly sarcastic description of some 
tradesman's "Religion," & some clergy's 
preaching. What were precisely the things 
which Milton, Cromwell &c. aimed at so in- 
tensely ? This should be clearly ascertained 
in limine, more clearly than hitherto. 

[Thus far was written in August 1822 — 
what a horrid gap has followed ! It is now 
the 4th of March 1823 ; and what have I 
been doing since ? Fearful question ! I 
will think no more of it. Goethe says it is 
always wrong to spend time in looking back 
at the road we have travelled over; it either 
disheartens us vainly, or puffs us up with a 
conceit as vain : the best plan is whatever our 
handfindeth to do, to do it quickly. So be it 
then ! — But alas ! alas ! — ] 

The old Dramatists, Massinger, Beaumont 
and Fletcher &c. have disappointed me a 
good deal. Their language has often an echo 
of richest melody in it ; their characters (par- 
ticularly of Rips and Blackguards in B & F.) 
are sometimes well conceived and happily 

l ' Cote ' or coat-money was a tax for clothing new 
levies, imposed on the counties by the King. ' Conduct' 
a tax for defraying the cost of moving or conducting 
troops from place to place. 



presented ; there are in short many individual 
beauties : but no one piece, so far as I recol- 
lect, that I read to an end without disgust. 
What horrid barbarism of taste ! what shock- 
ing grossness of manners ! how little of gen- 
uine philosophy or real insight into the depths 
of human nature. Rich and royal Shake- 
speare ! We should read his cotemporaries in 
order rightly to prize him. — No this is not 
the way for instructing myself! It is not. 

What should I think of Goethe? His 
Wilhelm Meister instructed, disgusted, moved 
and charmed me. The man seems to under- 
stand many of my own aberrations, " the na- 
ture and causes " of which still remain mys- 
terious to myself. I do feel that he is a wise 
and great man. The last volume of his Life 
is good also — gossipping,but full of intellect 
and entertainment. 

Lacretelle 1 is but a flashy superficial histo- 
rian : he has nothing to tell me that I did 
not know before. French chivalry — the 
spirit of honour, and the everlasting Henri 
Quatre — stuff — very wersh 2 stuff. It is really 
curious to think how little knowledge there is 
actually contained in these uncountable moun- 
tains of books that men have written. A few 

1 Author of many works on the history of France, born 
1766, died 1835. 
2 Wersh, Scottice, "insipid." 



general ideas, a few facts in the history of 
natural phenomena, a few observations on the 
properties of our minds, a few descriptions of 
our feelings — the whole repeated in ten thou- 
sand times ten thousand forms ; — this is what 
we call philosophy and poetry. Alas ! I am 
not yet past the threshold of instruction! 
Gott hilf mir ! as Luther said. 

These German critics are curious people. 
Griiber, Wieland, Doering, Schiller shew cu- 
riously beside our Edin h and Quarterly Re- 
views. How much better are they? More 
learned at any rate, more full of careful re- 
flection, displaying greatly more culture than is 
usual among such people this side the water. 
I rather fear however there is more cry than 
wool. I must read some of them any way. 
Herder I have some good hopes of. Here 
is a place extracted from his Nemesis. After 
mentioning that he thinks the notion of the 
soul was first suggested by the phenomena 
of dreams, and preluding a little on the simi- 
larity of Sleep and Death and their common 
relation to Night, he proceeds : 

" Beautiful allegory which the Former of 
our nature, by the alternation of light and 
darkness of sleeping and waking, has placed 
in the feelings of the most unthinking man ! 
It seems as if He had wanted to give us a 
daily emblem of the circuit of our destiny, 
and had sent us daily to deliver it his mes- 

3 33 


senger, Sleep the brother of Death. Softly 
do the dark wings of this Ambassador sweep 
towards us, and overshadow us with the clouds 
of Night. The Genius sinks his torch, and 
refreshes us, if the day dazzled our eyes, with 
some drops of forgetfulness from his ambro- 
sial horn. Tired with the glare of the young 
Sun, we look to our old Mother Night as she 
comes with her two children in her arms, 
shrouded in a dark veil, but circled with a 
far-glancing crown of Stars. Whilst on the 
Earth she obscures the eyes of our body, she 
awakens the eyes of our soul to wide pros- 
pects of other worlds. But the views there 
are but dreams for our earthly spirit; the 
Mother of Sleep and Rest can give us nothing 
more." — Is not this a little in the vein of 
Hervey ? Yet there is something very sweet 
in it. Herder writes a Prize-essay about the 
origin of Speech — Another about the decay 
of taste, from which Mad. de Stael appears 
to have borrowed something. 

In voller Jugend glanzen sie (the stars) 

Da schon Jahrtausende vergangen : 

Der Zeitenwechsel raubet nie 

Das Licht von ihren Wangen. 

Hier aber unter unserm Blick 

Verfallt, vergeht, verschwindet alles : 

Der Erde Pracht, der Erde Gluck 

Droht eine Zeit des Falles — 

. TX Herder 

(Last line bad.) 



" But as to the place and hour of thy future 
existence, fret not thyself O man; the Sun 
which illuminates thy day measures out for 
thee thy dwelling and thy earthly business, 
and obscures for thee meanwhile all the stars 
of Heaven. Soon as he goes down the world 
appears in its wider form : the sacred Night 
in which thou once layest shrouded up and 
wilt again lie shrouded up, covers thy Earth 
with shades but opens for thee in its stead 
the shining books of Immortality in the sky. 
There lie dwellings, worlds, and spaces." 

" Unchanged they shine still young as ever 
When thousand years have passed away; 
And Time, the all-destroying, never 
May smite their beauty with decay. 

" But here while yet one views it 

All fades and falls and mocks the eye ; 
Earth's pomp — Destruction's foot pursues it, 
To glance of joy is scowl of sorrow nigh. 

" That Earth herself will be no more when 
thou shalt still be, and in other dwelling- 
places under other forms of existence shalt 
enjoy thy God and his creation. Already 
hast thou in this Earth enjoyed much good. 
In it thou hast obtained that form of being, 
in which as a son of Heaven it is allowed 
thee to look around about thee and above. 
Seek then to leave it in contentment, and 
bless it as the green field where thou a child 



of Immortality wert wont to play, and as the 
school where in sorrow and in joy thou wast 
reared to manhood. Thou hast no farther 
claim upon it; it has no farther claim on thee : 
crowned with the cap of freedom and girt 
with the girdle of Heaven, take up thy pil- 
grim staff with cheerfulness, and go on thy 
way." Herder. 

Schiller born ioth Nov' 1759 at Marbach 
on the Neckar in Wurtemberg (same year 
with our Burns). His father a Regiment 
surgeon made a prayer for the boy — see the 
Life in his Werke. Well answered. — What 
ivere the regulations in the school at Stutt- 
gard? Who was Schubart 1 } (51) — p. 72? 
Mad [am von] Wollzogen was Schiller's pro- 
tectress when he fled. Philosophische Briefe 
what vol. ? Vol. 4. — His sailing in the Elbe, 
100. Went to Weimar, saw Herder and 
Wieland, and was induced by the latter to 
take part in the Teutsches Mercur. Invited 
by the F[rau] Wollzogen to come and see 
her, he went to Rudolstadt and saw his fu- 
ture wife. First interview with Goethe 106. 
Blarney about history. Garden at Jena 118. 
Kant's phil. 120. Goethe's Naturgeschichte 
unci Morphologie. Jean Paul's Aesthetic. 
Schiller about to write an epic poem on Fred- 

l Carlyle answers this question in a long note in the 
appendix to his Life of Schiller, 1825. 



erick the Great — 124 Critical remarks — 
Marries 130 — Garden 132 — Help from 
Denmark 133 — Schiller's critique on Bur- 
ger vol. 8. — The Xenienf little Epigrams — 
are they to be found in S's Werke? Musen- 
almanach? Horen? 158. Walks 164. Where 
is Fr. SchlegePs Vorlesungen uber die neuere 
Geschichte to be had? Schiller's triumph 
at Leipzig 176 — Translate 193 &c. decent? 
197 Must see the 8 vol. of W\erke~\ — 

Morn, alas ! thy radiance tinges 

A dead sepulchral stone. 
And Eve thou throw'st thy crimson fringes 

But o'er his slumber dark and lone. 

Must see Jean Paul's Vorschule der Aes- 

"Schiller was tall in stature, of a strong 
frame, yet withal very lean. His body ap- 
peared visibly to be suffering under the keen 
emotions of his spirit; but from his pale coun- 
tenance, from his softly kindling (animated) 
eye, there gleamed a still enthusiasm; and 
his high free brow announced the deep 
thinker. His cheeks and temples were hol- 
low, the lips a little prominent, the chin 
rather long and projecting. The colour of 
his hair was inclined to reddish. 

" In his external appearance there was lit- 
tle to recommend him. In walking he kept 
his eyes constantly bent on the ground ; he 



often failed to notice the salutations of ac- 
quaintances that passed him, but on hearing 
such he caught hastily at his hat and gave 
his cordial Guten Tag." 

His rather stiff and slow gait, and plain 
apparel were not calculated to draw atten- 
tion towards him; and there was farther in 
his manner a sort of painful backwardness 
visible in large companies, and especially at 
court. In such situations he felt himself op- 
pressed by a certain constraint, he saw out- 
ward show made the ruling principle; and 
both were at variance with the inmost feel- 
ings of his nature. 

It was in the circle of his family or of a 
few intimate friends that he became unem- 
barrassed, talkative, mirthful with all that 
loved mirth. He enjoyed no little recrea- 
tion in a club which had been formed at 
Weimar, and for which he and Goethe com- 
posed some social songs. 

To the noisy and tumultuous pleasures of 
life Schiller was nowise inclined. Among 
the few public places which he used to fre- 
quent the Playhouse was the only one on 
which he bestowed any positive attention. 
It was especially his pleasure and concern to 
communicate instruction to the actors. The 
first reading of the new pieces was always 
gone thro' in his or Goethe's house; a cir- 
cumstance which of itself must have had the 



most beneficial influence on many a player 
of talents. Schiller indeed required much ; 
he made strict demands on professors of the 
art. Yet after the successful exhibition of 
any of his later dramatic works, he was wont 
to invite the more distinguished players to a 
supper in the Town-house, where they had 
merry songs, improvisoes, and all kinds of 
jokes and diversion. 1 

Schiller was in the highest degree benevo- 
lent and the friend of men. His heart felt 
the sorrows of another like his own. He 
often said he wished for nothing more than 
to see all men happy and contented with 
their lot. 

As a proof how upright his feelings were, 
how far from petty self-interest, I may give 
this example. A well-known Bookseller 
hearing that Schiller was busied with Wallen- 
stein waited upon him at Weimar, and of- 
fered him 1 2 gold Carolins per sheet for the 
property of the piece. The price was con- 
siderably higher than Cotta of Tubingen, 
with whom he was then treating on the same 
subject, used to give; but Sc[hiller] did not for 
that reason think of changing his publisher : 
"Cotta" he said "deals honestly [solide) with 
me, and I with him," and sent the Bookseller 

1 Among other things the player Genast used at S's 
request to recite the Capuchin's speech out of Wallen- 
stein. T C. 



away without even the hope of any future 
trade with him. 

Schiller has delineated himself with very 
striking correctness. " The childlike charac- 
ter " he observes " which genius expresses in 
its works, it shews also in its morals and private 
life. It is bashful, for nature is ever so ; but 
it has not the art of concealment, for conceal- 
ment is taught of perversion alone. It is 
wise, for nature never can be otherwise ; but 
it is not crafty, for that can by Art alone be. It 
is true to its character and inclinations, but 
not so much because it walks by principles as 
because nature with all her aberrations ever 
returns to her former aim, ever brings back 
her original desire. It is prudent, nay timid, 
for genius ever remains a secret to itself; but 
it is not anxious, not knowing the dangers of 
the path it treads. We know little of the pri- 
vate life of the greatest geniuses ; but even 
that little as it has been transmitted to us 
proves the truths here stated." * 

Schiller 2 seems to have been a very worthy 
character, possessed of great talents, and for- 
tunate in always finding means to employ 

1 From ' ' Naive und Sentimentalische Dichtung. " The 
passage was much better translated by Carlyle in his 
Life of Schiller, 1825, p. 299. 

2 The following passage is cited by Mr. Froude, in his 
Life of Carlyle, Vol. i, p. 196, but inaccurately ; for ex- 
ample, instead of "Schiller seems to have been," he 
prints, "Schiller was." 



them in the attainment of worthy ends. The 
pursuit of the Beautiful, the representing of 
it in suitable forms, and the diffusion of the 
feelings arising from it, operated as a kind of 
religion in his soul. He talks in some of his 
essays about the Aesthetics being a necessary 
means of improvement among political socie- 
ties : his efforts in this cause accordingly 
not only satisfied the restless activity, the 
desire of creating and working upon others, 
which forms the great want of an elevated 
mind, but yielded a sort of balsam to his 
conscience ; he viewed himself as an Apostle 
of the sublime. Pity that he had no bet- 
ter way of satisfying it ! A play-house shews 
but indifferently as an arena for the Moral- 
ist: it is even inferior to the synod of the 
theologian. One is tired to death with his 
and Goethe's palabra about the nature of the 
fine arts. Did Shakespeare know aught of 
the aesthetic ? Did Homer ? Kant's philos- 
ophy has a monstrously gigantic appearance 
at a distance — enveloped in clouds and dark- 
ness, shadowed forth in types and symbols 
of unknown and fantastic derivation, there is 
an apparatus and a flourishing of drums and 
trumpets and a tumultuous Marktschreyerei 
as if all the Earth were going to renew its 
youth; and the esoterics are equally allured 
by all this pomp and circumstance, and re- 
pelled by the hollowness and airy nothing- 



ness of the ware which is presented to them. 
Any of the results which have been made in- 
telligible to us turn out to be like Dryden in 
the Battle of the Books, a helmet of rusty iron 
large as a kitchen-pot and within it a head 
little bigger than a nut. 1 What is SchlegeFs 
great solution of the mystery of life — " the 
strife of necessity against free-will " ? 2 Noth- 
ing earthly but the old, old story that all men 
find it difficult to get on in the world ; and 
that one never can get all his humour out! 
They pretend to admit that nature gives 
people dim intimations of true beauty and 
just principles in Art ; but the bildende Kunst- 
ler and the richtende z ought to investigate the 
true foundations of these obscure intimations 
and set them fast on the basis of reason. 
Stuff and nonsense ? I fear it is. The people 
made finer pieces of workmanship when there 
was not a critic among them. Just as people 
do finer actions when there was no theory 
of the moral sentiments among them. Na- 
ture is the sure guide in all cases ; and per- 

l Carlyle changes Swift's imagery. " The Helmet was 
nine times too large for the Head, which appeared Situ- 
ate far in the hinder Part, even like the Lady in a Lob- 
ster, or like a mouse under a canopy of State, or like a 
shrivled Beau from within the Pent-house of a modern 
Perewig." The Battle of the Books, 1704, p. 263. 

2 For "free-will" Mr. Froude prints "the will," and 
five lines below, for "dim intimations " he substitutes 
" true intimations." 

3 " The artist and the critic." 

WCt t»ui %UJ^ fifM <hu»*_ fr*fyVUt*Vt ®S **— 
ksK- ^W. i^ <Lj/ Uv^ *fiA4it^( 
I fir 3<MK> yfi+r4 t c^ y^ ^ *^_ 

*" ' ***** 1$2 ^^CwW^^ it ^^r 
'frXCjvJtk e«ys*> ^t^u^ ^aj2^ 


haps the only requisite is that we have 
judgement enough to apply the sentiment im- 
planted in us without our effort to the more 
complex circumstances that will meet us more 
frequently as we advance in culture, or move 
in a society more artificial. Poor silly sons 
of Adam ! you have been prating on these 
things for 2 or 3000 years, and you have not 
advanced a single hair's breadth towards the 
conclusion. Poor fellows! and poorer me! 
that take the trouble to repeat such insipidities 
and truisms. 

But what if I do not prodesse ? Why then 
terar still, — dum I cannot help it ! This is 
the end and beginning of all philosophy — 
known even to Singleton the Blacksmith — 
" we must just do the best we can, boy ! " 
Oh most lame and impotent conclusion. 

Welch eine Lage ! von tausend angstlichen 
Trieben herumgejagt, von Bediirfnissen, 
Thatigkeiten, zu wirken gefodert, gefodert, 
gefodert ; und kann nichts thun ! Armseli- 
ger Narr! Ich mochte tollwerden — und 
was denn ? Schweige ! 1 

Herder hated the new philosophy and wrote 
against it bitterly. Wieland did the same, 
for it shattered into powder the gim-crack 

1 " What a condition ! driven by a thousand disquiet- 
udes, by necessities, by actualities, obliged to work, 
obliged, obliged, and can do nothing! Poor fool! I 
am ready to go mad — and what then ? Silence ! " 



palace of French rationality which he had 
been chopping and putting together all his 
life for Teutschland. Goethe was wiser than 
either; he was clear for "letting it have its 
time as everything has." This was right, old 
Goethe, and I respect thee for the solid judge- 
ment of this saying. Herder was not de- 
terred by the terror of novelty, or yet by too 
strong a rational faculty, too keen a judgement. 
He believed in & greatly prized the scull- 
doctrine of Df Gall ! But Gall had borrowed 
his fundamental ideas from Herder's Ideen 
zur Phil. — there it lay ! — and the new phil- 
osophy was driving fiercely butting like a 
wild Bull against the orthodox creed of Ger- 
many. The poor divinity-students returned 
from the prelections of Fichte and Reinhold 
at Jena full of the most undigestible concep- 
tions ; and appeared before the Consistoriums 
in a state approaching to derangement, and 
like deranged people frequently out-argued 
the old stagers who believed orthodoxly. 
Great scandal thereby; and severe repre- 
hensions. One young divine shot himself at 
Weimar. Fichte appears actually to have 
been a metaphysical atheist. I wish I fully 
understood the philosophy of Kant ! Is it a 
chapter in the history of human folly or the 
brightest in the history of h. wisdom ? Or 
of both mixed ? And in what degree ? 
That distinction of Coleridge's (which he 



has borrowed or may have borrowed from 
Woltmann) about talent and genius is com- 
pletely blarney, — futile, very futile. — I am 
tired and stupid and almost red-mud. 1 

Farewell my books & pens and papers 
My studies great and small ! 

Most pitiful sickly farthing tapers 
Are the sciences one and all. 

Oh once your flaring light inspir'd me 
I certainly thought you moons or suns 

And I ran to catch what somehow fir'd me 
As many a crack-brained ninny runs. 

And when at length nigh broken-winded 
I approached thro' many a glarry^ way 

The glim was nearly douced^ or I was blinded 
I strained my eyes, knew nought to think or 

Forsooth ye are most worthy rare devices 

How clearly ye tell us all we know ! 
And where we know not, still your art supplies 
With excellent words and terms to come & 

1 Distracted. 

2 Miry. 

3 The light was nearly sunk. 



Oh that the old one had you to make 
A kirk and mill of if so inclined ! 

And this accursed queasy grumbling stomach 
Would cease to trouble an ignorant mind ! 

March, 1823. Andrew Macnay. 1 

Poet should preach or poetize for his age, 
should elevate and beautify the ideas which 
are current in it : be Zeiiburger as well as 
Staatsbiirger. — [Schiller] Review of Burger. 

" What went before and what will follow me 
I look at as at two black imperforable cur- 
tains, which hang down at the two extremi- 
ties of human life, and which no living man 
has yet drawn aside. Many hundreds of 
generations already stand before them with 
their torches and guess and guess about what 
lies behind. Many see their own shadows 
the forms of their passions enlarged and put 
in motion on the curtain of futurity; they 
shrink in terror at their own image. Poets, 
philosophers and founders of states have 
painted it with their dreams — more smiling 
or more dark as the sky above them was 
gloomy or cheerful; and their pictures de- 
ceive at a distance. Many jugglers too make 
profit of this universal curiosity, and by 

1 On the margin against the preceding verses the fol- 
lowing note is written: "At Mrs. Wilkie's, near Pilrig 
Street, Leith walk; I still dimly remember the night. 
(May, 1866!)—" 



their strange disguisings ( Vermummungen) 
have set the outstretched Fantasy in astonish- 
ment. (But) a deep silence reigns behind 
this curtain; none once within it will an- 
swer those he has left without; all you can 
hear is a hollow echo of your question, as if 
you shouted into a chasm. To the other 
side of this curtain we are all bound, and 
men catch it with shuddering, uncertain who 
may stand behind to receive them, quid sit id, 
quod tantum morituri vident. 1 Some incredu- 
lous persons there have been who maintained 
that this curtain but made a fool of men, and 
that nothing could be seen because nothing 
was behind it ; but to convince these persons, 
the rest pushed them hastily behind." Schiller, 
Geisterseher. [Vierter Brief.] IV. 350. 

As gentle shepherd in sweet eventide 
When ruddy Phoebus gins to welk in west 
High on a hill, his flock to vewen wide, 
Marks which do bite their hasty supper best. 
Faery Queen B. 1. c. 1. [st. 23.] 

A little lowly hermitage it was 
Down in a dale hard by a forest's side, 
Far from resort of people that did pass 
In travel to and fro : a little wyde (distant ?) 
There was a holy chapel edified, 

1 ' What that may be which only those see who are 
about to die.' 

4 49 


Wherein the hermit duly wont to say 
His holy things each morn and eventide : 
Thereby a chrystal stream did gently play, 
Which from a sacred fountain welled forth 

away. (Do.) [st. 34.] 

Error (battle with) graphical but beastly — 
Morpheus' establishment is well done. " Bold 
bad man " is Spenser's — it might have been 

By this the northern waggoner had set 
His sevenfold teme behind the stedfast starre 
That was in ocean waves yet never wet. 
But firm is fixt, and sendeth light from farre 
To all that in the wide deep wandring arre: 
And chearefull chaunticlere with &c. 

B. i. c. ii. [st. 1.] 

At last the golden orientall gate 
Of greatest Heaven gan to open fayre ; 
And Phcebus fresh as bridegroom to his mate, 
Came dauncing forth shaking his deawie hayre 
And hurld his glistring beams thro' gloomy 
ayre B. i. c. v. [st. 2.] 

This Spenser pleaseth me well : he is a 
dainty body as ever I met with. 

Hactenus in May 1823 : it is now Novem- 
ber; 1 six weary months have passed away, 

l 3 Nov 1 ; 1823. (at Kinnaird ! with Bullers.) [T. C. 
1866.] Since the spring of 1822 Carlyle had remained 
in Edinburgh as tutor of Charles and Arthur Buller. In 
May, 1823, the Buller family removed to Kinnaird House, 



another portion from my span of being ; and 
here am I, in a wet dreary night, at Kinnaird, 
with no recollections or acquisitions to fill 
up that space with; but the recollection of 
agonized days and nights, and the acquisition 
of a state of health worse than it ever was ! 
My time ! my time ! My peace and activity ! 
My hopes and purposes ! Where are they ? 
I could read the curse of Ernulphus, 1 or some- 
thing twenty-times as fierce, upon myself and 
all things earthly. What will become of me ? 
Happiness! Tophet must be happier than 
this : or they — But basta / It is no use talk- 
ing. Let me get on with Schiller; then with 
Goethe. " They that meaned at a gowden 
gown gat aye the sleeve." I shall not even 
get the listing. — These remarks are interest- 
ing to read some months after date: I will 
continue them . Schiller is in the wrong vein. 2 
Laborious, partly affected, meagre, bombastic : 
too often it strives by lofty words to hide 
littleness of thought. Would I were done 
with it! Oh Carlyle if ever thou become 
happy ', think on these days of pain and dark- 
ness; and thou wilt join trembling with thy 
mirth! Forth! Forth! 3 d November 1823. 

a beautiful place near Dunkeld on the Tay, and here Car- 
lyle resided with them till, in 1824, they removed to Lon- 
don. See Life, Vol. i. ; Early Letters, Vol. ii. 

ISee Tristram Shandy, Book iii. c. 11. 

2 The Life of Schiller which he was now engaged in 



List of French books — to be read it ever 
I have leisure and fall in with them. I tran- 
scribe them from the back of an old Recipe 
(the Bumming Doctor's — which I recollect 
well) about three years of age. Some one or 
two I have read since then, and omit here. 
I suppose they must originally have been 
taken from Chenevix' Articles in the Edin r 
Review ; but I am not certain. 

Malebranche, Recherche de la verite\ 

Condillac, La Logique. 

Bonnet, Psychologic 

De Gerando, Des Connaissances humaines. 

De Tracy (on Grammar, Ideology &c.) 

Garat ? Charron ? La Mothe Le Vayer ? 

Nicole, Essais de Morale. 

St Lambert (weak I understand). Principes 
de morale chez toutes les nations. 

Servan, Dupaty, Calonne, Sieyes, Lebrun, 
Roederer, Marbois, Neucours, Gamier, Per- 
reau, Bexon, Bourguignon, Pastoret, Lacre- 
telle, De Bonald. 

These are marked u polit."'m the List: except 
Sieyes and Lacretelle and Calonne I never 
before heard their names, and know nothing 
about them. Lacretelle I have read one 
work of, the Religious Wars: it is a poor 
flashy performance, readable because its sub- 
ject is interesting ; and the author tho' half 
a puppy has been among thinkers in the 19th 



Cardinal de Retz. M6moires 


Froissart (this I should like best) 

Seyssel (who is he ?) Velly, Mezeray. 

Vertot, D'Orl6ans, Dubos, Anquetil (bad) 

Rulhiere, Thouret, Royou (short hist, of 

I should also like to have Montaigne ; the vol. 
of his Essais that I read was very good — at 
least very curious. — Here are some rhymers: 

Marivaux, Malherbe, Balzac, Voiture, Scu- 
deri, Scarron, &c. I have long wished to 
read Grammont : the parts of it known to 
me are excellent. What of Mad. de La 
Fayette, her Princesse de Cleves? Abb6 
Prevost his Cleveland ? Laclos ? Louvet ? 
Pigault-le-Brun ? — These I fear are but of 
the small deer I have too long been used to. 
There is something in a weak or dull book 
very nauseous to me. Reading is a weariness 
of the Flesh; after reading and studying 
about two scores of good books, there is no 
new thing whatever to be met with in the 
generality of libraries ; repetitions a thousand 
times repeated of the same general idea; 
feelings, opinions and events — all is what we 
might anticipate. No man without Themis- 
tocles' gift of forgetting can possibly spend 
his days in reading. 1 Generally about the age 

l" Vain was the prayer of Themistocles for a talent 
of Forgetting." Sartor Resartus, Book i. ch. viii. The 



of five and twenty he should begin to put the 
little knowledge he has acquired (it can be 
but little) from books to some practical use. 
If I could write y that were my practical use. 
But alas! alas! Oh! Schiller what secret 
hadst thou for creating such things as Max 
and Thekla when thy body was wasting with 
disease ? I am well nigh done I think. To die 
is hard enough at this age ; to die by inches 
is very hard. But I will not, tho' all things 
human and divine are against me, I will not. 

Schiller Part II. is off to London three 
weeks ago : it was very bad. Part III. I am 
swithering to begin : would it were finished. 
I spent ten days (wretchedly) in Edinf and 
Had n ; I was consulting doctors, who made 
me give up my dear nicotiana and take to 
mercury. I sometimes think I shall recover. 
December 14th. 

I am to write letters and then begin Schil- 
ler. May God bless all my Friends — my 
poor Mother at the head of them ! Oh it 
sometimes comes over me like the shadow of 
Death — the thought that we are all parting 
from one another — each moving his several 
his destined inevitable way, Fate driving us 
on, inexorable dead relentless Fate ! No de- 
liverance ? (mil dem Fusse stampfend). 1 No 

saying of Themistocles is reported by Cicero, De Ora- 
tore, ii. 74. 
1 " Stamping with the foot." 



help ? Alas poor sons of Adam ! But no 
more of this. 

31st December The year is closing; this 

1823. time eight and twenty 

years I was a child of three 

weeks old lying sleeping in my mother's 


Oh little did my mither think 

That day she cradled me, 
The lands that I should travel in 
The death I was to die. i 

Another hour and 1823 is with the years 
beyond the flood. What have I done to 
mark the course of it ? Suffered the pangs 
of Tophet almost daily, grown sicker and 
sicker, alienated by my misery certain of my 
friends, and worn out from my own mind a 
few remaining capabilities of enjoyment, re- 
duced my world a little nearer the condition 
of a bare haggard desart, where peace and 
rest for me is none. Hopeful youth Mr. C. ! 
Another year or two and it will do ; another 

1 To this, Carlyle in 1866 appended the words " Ex- 
tract by Burns —first came to me thro' T. Murray." 

The stanza is from the beautiful ballad, of much dis- 
cussed origin, known as " Mary Hamilton," or " The 
Queen's Marie." See Child's English and Scottish 
Popular Ballads, Vol. iii. p. 379 and Vol. v. p. 246. " We 
first hear of the Scottish Ballad," says Professor Child, 
"in 1790, when a stanza is quoted in a letter of Robert 
Burns." The letter is to Mrs. Dun lop, 25 th Jan. 1790. 
See Currie's Works of Burns 1800, ii. 290. 



year or two and thou wilt wholly be the caput 
mortuum of thy former self, a creature igno- 
rant, stupid, peevish, disappointed, broken- 
hearted ; the veriest wretch upon the surface 
of the globe. My curse seems deeper and 
blacker than that of any man : to be immured 
in a rotten carcass, every avenue of which is 
changed into an inlet of pain; till my intellect 
is obscured and weakened, and my head and 
heart are alike desolate and dark. How have 
I deserved this ? Or is it merely a dead in- 
exorable Fate that orders these things, caring 
no jot for merit or demerit, crushing our poor 
mortal interests among its ponderous ma- 
chinery, and grinding us and them to dust 
relentlessly ? I know not j shall I ever know ? 
" Then why don't you kill yourself Sir ? Is 
there not arsenic ? Is there not ratsbane of 
various kinds, and hemp and steel ? " Most 
true, Sathanas, all these things are: but it 
will be time enough to use them when I have 
lost the game, which I am as yet but losing. 
You observe Sir I have still a glimmering of 
hope; and while my friends {my friends, my 
Mother, Father, brothers and sisters) live, 
the duty of not breaking their hearts would 
still remain to be performed when hope had 
utterly fled. For which reasons, even if 
there were no other (which however I be- 
lieve there are), the benevolent Sathanas will 
excuse me. I do not design to be a suicide: 



God in Heaven forbid! That way I was 
never tempted. 1 

But where is the use of going on with this ? 
I am not writing like a reasonable man : if I 
am miserable, the more reason there is to 
gather my faculties together, and see what 
can be done to help myself. I want health, 
health, health. On this subject I am becom- 
ing quite furious: my torments are greater 
than I am able to bear. If I do not soon re- 
cover I am miserable for ever and ever. They 
talk of the benefit of ill-health in a moral 
point of view. 2 I declare solemnly without 
exaggeration that I impute nine tenths of my 

l"From Suicide," says Teufelsdrockh, "a certain 
aftershine (Nachschein) of Christianity withheld me: 
perhaps, also, a certain indolence of character ; for was 
not that a remedy I had at any time within reach ? " 

Sartor Resartus, Book ii. ch. vii. 

2 In later years Carlyle wrote, in recalling this period 
of his life, " Other things might have made me hopeful 
and cheerful as beseemed my years, — had not Dyspepsia, 
with its base and unspeakable miseries, kept such fatal 
hold of me, which, perhaps, needed only a wise Doctor, 
too, as I found afterwards, when too late ! Heavy, grind- 
ing, and continual has that burden lain on me ever since 
to this hour, and will lie ; but I must not complain of it, 
either ; it was not wholly a curse, as I can sometimes 
recognize, but perhaps a thing needed, and partly a 
blessing, though a stern one, and bitter to flesh and 
blood." Early Letters, ii. 114, note. See also in regard to 
his sufferings from dyspepsia, Reminiscences, ii. 107, no. 
113, 115, 140. The evil was augmented by unwise doc- 
tors, who dosed him with active but ineffectual drugs, 
weakening his health without remedying the specific 



present wretchedness, and rather more than 
nine tenths of all my faults to this infernal 
disorder in the stomach. If it were once 
away I think I could snap my fingers in 
the face of all the world. The only good of 
it is the friends it tries for us and endears 
to us ! Oh ! there is a charm in the true 
affection that suffering cannot weary, that 
abides by us in the day of fretfulness and 
dark calamity — a charm which almost makes 
amends for misery. Love to my friends — 
Alas ! I may almost say relations ! — is now 
almost the sole religion of my mind. 

In a month we quit this place ; they x with 
a view to amusement, I in the hope of get- 
ting Meister printed. 2 I have better hopes of 
Meister than I had ; tho' still they are very 

1 The Bullers. 

2 In the spring of 1823 Carlyle had engaged with an 
Edinburgh bookseller to translate Wilhelm Meister. 
In a bit of reminiscences, printed in his Early Letters, 
ii. p. 201, note, Carlyle, describing his life at Kinnaird 
House, says : " I lodged and slept in the old mansion, a 
queer, old-fashioned, snug enough, entirely secluded 
edifice, sunk among trees, about a gunshot from the new 
big House ; hither I came to smoke about twice or thrice 
in the daytime ; had a good oak-wood fire at night, and 
sat in a seclusion, in a silence not to be surpassed above 
ground. I was writing Schiller, translating Meister ; 
my health in spite of my diligent riding, grew worse and 
worse ; thoughts all wrapt in gloom, in weak dispiritment 
and discontent, wandering mournfully to my loved ones 
far away ; letters to and from, it may well be supposed, 
were my most genial solacement. At times, too, there 
was something of noble in my sorrow, in the great soli- 
tude among the rocking winds, but not often." 



faint. Schiller P. III. I began just three 
nights ago. I absolutely could not sooner. 
These drugs leave me scarcely the conscious- 
ness of existence. They take away all am- 
bition, all wish for aught beyond deep sleep 
if that might by any means be made to fall 
upon me. I am scribbling not writing Schil- 
ler : my mind will not catch hold of it ; I 
skim it, do as I will, and I am anxious as 
possible to get it off my hands. It will not 
do for publishing separately : it is not in my 
natural vein. I wrote a very little of it to- 
night, and then went and talked ineptitudes 
at the house. Also there is mercurial powder 
in me, and a gnawing pain over all the or- 
gans of digestion — especially in the pit and 
left side of the stomach. Let this excuse the 
wild absurdity above. 

Half past eleven ! The silly Denovan * is 
coming down (at least so I interpreted his 
threat) with punch or wishes ; which curtails 
the few reflections this mercury might still 
leave it in my power to make. To make 
none at all will perhaps be as well. It ex- 
hibits not an interesting but a true picture of 
my present mood — stupid, unhappy, by fits 
wretched, but also dull, dull and very weak. 

Now fare thee well old twenty-three ! 
No power, no art can thee retain 

1 Probably the butler of the Bullers. 


Eternity will roll away — Eternity ! 
And thou wilt never come again. 

And welcome thou, young twenty-four, 
Thou bringer to men of joy and grief! 
Whate'er thou bringest, in sufferings sore 
The patient heart in faith will hope relief. 

— Here thou art by Jove! Denny is not 
come. Good night! "To whom?" 

There is a good explanation of the aequo pul- 
satpede in Swinburne's travels : it seems credit- 
ors and other aggrieved persons still signify 
their determined hostility and resolution to be 
avenged by kicking at the door of the debtor. 

I have sometimes been reading BoswelPs 
Life of Johnson lately : Johnson talked well 
but not more wisely than a common man; 
at least very little more. Also his conversa- 
tion is only intellectually felicitous; he has 
no strange ideas to shew, no curious modes 
of feelings; he only does well what every one 
can do in some way. I figure Goethe or 
even Coleridge to be more curious persons. 
Poor Goethe is " again dangerously ill " the 
papers say. Basta / 

7th January Such three days I have had 
[1824]. with the introduction to Schil- 
ler / — and then to reject it 
all ! I must insert some of it here to-mor- 



row, for it cost me labour, and should not be 
totally lost. To-night I am going to write to 

Last Sunday came the Times newspaper 
with the commencement of Schiller Part II 
extracted. So Walter 2 thought it on this side 
zero ! I believe this is about the first com- 
pliment (most slender as it is) that ever was 
paid me, by a person who could have no in- 
terest in hoodwinking me. I am very weak : it 
kept me cheerful for an hour; even yet I some- 
times feel it. — Certainly no one ever wrote with 
such tremendous difficulty as I do. Shall I 
learn to " write with ease " — ever learn ? 

I have got half a new idea to-day about 
history: it is more than I can say for any 
day the last six months. 

Confessio TiDKi of Wallensteins Jager {2$) 


I mean to be quite easy and gay, 

To see something new on each [new] day, 

In joys of the sharing 

To the moment merrily trusting, 

[On the past or the future] not thinking or caring 

No thought on the past or the future casting. 

So, look, to the Kaiser I sold my bacon 

And by him let the charge of all needful be 

lTo Miss Welsh, at Haddington. 
2 The proprietor of the Times. 


mid thickest 

Order me on to the whistling cannon shot 

Rhine's wild roaring tide 

Over the red and roaring Rhine, 
The second man must go to pot, — 

not minding a jot 

I mount and ride without loss of time. 

d'ye see 

But farther I humbly beg and pray, 

you'd let me be 

That in other things I may have my way. 


Cousin ! since then I 've been wide and far, 
To-day we come, to-morrow we go, 

the rough rude 

As it happens the besom of war 

Pleases to shove us 

Shakes one and sweeps one to and fro 


Our life was but a battle and a march, 

And like the wind's blast, never-resting, 

We stormed across the war-convulsed earth. 

KUrassier — 

This sword of ours is no plough or spade 
You cannot delve or reap with the iron blade 


For us there springs no seed, no cornfield 



The soldier no home nor kindred knows, 
Must wander over the face of the earth, 
Must warm his hands at another's hearth, 

From must onward roam 

To the pomp of towns he bids adieu, 

In the village green with its cheerful game, 

laughing times of 

In the vintage [time] or harvest-home, 
No part or lot can the soldier claim. 

In the place of goods of worth or pelf 

Tell me then what goods or worth he has 

What has he unless 

If the soldier cease to honour himself? 

naught to call 

Leave him nothing of his own, what wonder 


The creature should burn and kill and 
plunder ? 


By Dr. John Leyden. 

[From a copy in Mrs. B.'s handwriting — 

Jan? 1824.] 

That bonnet's pride, that tartan's flow, 
My soul with wild emotion fills ; 

Methinks I see in fancy's glow 
A princess from the land of hills. 

O for a Fairy's hand to trace 

The rainbow tints that rise to view ! 

That slender form of sweeter grace 
Than e'er Malvina's poet drew ! 



Her brilliant eye, her streaming hair, 
Her skin's soft splendour to display 

The finest pencil must despair 
Till it can paint the solar ray. 

Calcutta, 1 8 1 1. 

It must be night ere Friedland's star will beam. " 

21st September, Hoddam Hill. 1 A hiatus 
1825. valde deflendus / Since 

the last line was written, 
what a wandering to and fro, how many 
sad vicissitudes of despicable suffering and 
inaction have I undergone ! This little 
book and the desk that carries it have 
passed a summer and winter in London, 
since I last opened it; and I their foolish 
owner have roamed about the brick-built 
Babylon, the sooty Brummagem, and Paris 
the Vanity-fair of our modern world! My 
mood of mind is changed : is it improved ? 
Weiss nicht. 2 This stagnation is not peace, 
or it is the peace of Galgacus' Romans : ubi 

1 A little Farm, not far from Ecclefechan, with a cot- 
tage for dwelling-house where " at noon-day (26th May, 
1825) I established myself, set up my Books, and bits of 
implements and Lares ; and took to doing German Ro- 
mance as my daily work." " This year at Hoddam Hill 
. . . lies now like a not ignoble russet-coated Idyll in 
my memory ; one of the quietest on the whole, and per- 
haps the most triumphantly important of my life." 
Reminiscences , ii. 178. 

2 " I know not." 



solihidinem faciimt pacem appellatit. 1 How 
difficult it is to free one's mind from cant ; 
how very seldom are the principles we act on 
clear to our own reason ! Of the great nos- 
trums " forgetfulness of self " and "humbling 
of vanity," it were better therefore to say 
nothing: in my speech concerning them I 
overcharge the impression they have made 
on me, for my Conscience like my sense of 
Pain or Pleasure has grown dull, and I 
secretly desire to compensate for laxity of 
feeling by intenseness of describing. How 
much of these great nostrums is the product 
of necessity ? Am I like a sorry hack con- 
tent \.o feed on heather while rich clover seems 
to lie around it at a little distance, because in 
struggling to break the tether it has almost 
hanged itself? O that I could " go out of 
the body to philosophize ! " That I could 
even feel as of old the glory and magnificence 
of things till my own little me {mein kleifies 
Ich) were swallowed up and lost in them ! 
(partly cant ! ) But I cannot, I cannot ! Shall 
I ever more ? Gott weiss. At present I am 
but an abgerissenes Glied t a limb torn off from 
the family of Man, excluded from activity, 
with Pain for my companion, and Hope that 
comes to all rarely visiting me, and what 
is stranger rarely desired with vehemence! 

1" Where they make a solitude they call it peace." 
Tacitus, Life of Agricola, c. 30. 

5 6 S 


Unhappy man in whom the body has gained 
mastery over the soul ! Inverse Sensualist, not 
drawn into the rank of beasts by pleasure, but 
driven into it by pain ! Hush ! Hush ! Per- 
haps this is the Truce which weary Nature has 
conquered for herself to re-collect her scat- 
tered strength! Perhaps like an Eagle (or a 
Goose) she will " mew her mighty youth " 
and fly against the sun, or at least fish pad- 
docks with equanimity, like other birds of a 
similar feather; and no more lie among the 
pots, winged, maimed and plucked, doing 
nothing but chirp like a chicken in the coop 
for the livelong day. " Jook and let the 
jaw gae by," 1 my pretty Sir: when this soli- 
tude becomes intolerable to you, it will be 
time enough to quit it for the dreary blank 
which society and the bitterest activity have 
hitherto afforded you. You deserve consid- 
erable pity Mr. C. j and likewise considerable 
contempt. Heaven be your comforter my 
worthy Sir, you are in a promising condition 
at this present; sinking to the bottom, yet 
laid down to sleep ; Destruction brandishing 
his sword above you, and you quietly desir- 
ing him to take your life but spare your rest ! 
Gott hilf Ihnen / — Now for Tieck and his 
Runenberg : but first one whiff of generous 
narcotic ! How gladly " we love to wander 
on the plain with the summit in our eye ! " 

l " Duck, and let the wave go by." 


Ach Du meine Einzige, die Du mich liebst 
und Dich an mir anschmiegst, warum bin Ich 
Dir wie ein gebrochenes Rohr ! — Sollst Du 
niemals glucklich werden ! Wo bist Du heute 
Nacht? Mogen Friede und Liebe und 
Hoffnung deine Gefahrten seyn ! Leb' wohl ! 1 

3d December Comley Bank. Married! 
1826. Married! — Aber still da- 

von! 2 — and of a thousand 
other things. I am for business. 3 

Read Sir T. Browne's Religio Medici and 
Urne Burial lately ; his Vulgar Errors I had 
already seen at Kew. The Urne Burial I 
think (with little C. Lamb) the best; tho' 
much of it is little edifying at this time of 
day, or perhaps rather to this sort of reader. 
Disquisitions on all imaginable modes of 
sepulture; of mummies, bones, cremation, 
inhumation, &c, &c, not without here and 
there a straggling tone of pathetic feeling, or 
a gleam of philosophic thought. But the 
conclusion of the Essay is absolutely beauti- 
ful. A still, elegiac mood ; so soft, so deep, 

1 "Ah, mine only one, thou that lovest me and clingest 
to me, why am I but as a broken reed for thee. Art 
thou never to be happy ! Where art thou to-night ? 
May Peace and Love and Hope be with thee ! Farewell ! ' ' 

2 " But of that no words." 

3 Carlyle's marriage had taken place on October 17 ; 
and he and his wife were established at Comley Bank, a 
house in the northwestern suburbs of Edinburgh, where 
they lived till they went to Craigenputtock, in 1828. 



so solemn and tender, like the song of some 
departed Saint flitting faint under the ever- 
lasting canopy of Night ! An echo of deep- 
est meaning from "the great and famous 
nations of the Dead." Browne must have 
been a good man. What was his history ? 
What the real form of his character? for as 
yet I see him only thro' a glass darkly. " Abiit 
ad p lures, he hath gone to the greater num- 
ber." Life of him by Dr. Johnson. Qiialis? 

Two infants reasoning in the womb about 
the nature of this life might be no " unhand- 
some " type of two men reasoning here about 
the life that is to come. 1 

Lux Jovi, tenebrae Oreo, 2 one stroke up, 
the other stroke down. 

These bones have slept quietly " beneath 
the drums and trampling of three conquests." 3 

The Quincunx I like worst : full of learn- 
ing, but of a kind little to my taste, tho' I 
blame not the taste of it in him. The last 
chapter is better than all the rest. " The 
hunters are up in Persia " 4 has been quoted 

1 "A dialogue between two infants in the womb con- 
cerning the state of this world, might handsomely illus- 
trate our ignorance of the next." Urn Burial, ch. 4. 

2 " Light unto Pluto is darkness unto Jupiter." Gar- 
den of Cyrus, or the Quincuncial Lozenge, ch. 4. " Lux 
Oreo, tenebrae Jovi ; tenebrae Oreo, lux Jovi." Hippo- 
crates de Dieta ; S. Hevelii Selenographia. These refer- 
ences are from Wilkin's note on the passage in his edi- 
tion of Browne's Works, iii. 436. 3 Urn Burial, ch. 5. 

4 " To keep our eyes open longer were but to act our 



already in some Magazine. Browne stands 
midway between a poet and an orator. 

His Religio Medici is most readable of any, 
and indeed contains many true and praise- 
worthy things; only he gives himself fax too 
good and orthodox a character, thereby leav- 
ing us no refuge but to envy him in despair 
of doing so likewise ; or, what will be a more 
common resource, to disbelieve in and reject 
him as a moral dandy. 

I should like to know more of him ; but I 
ought to understand his time better also. 
What are we to make of this old English Lit- 
erature ? Touches of true beauty are thickly 
scattered over these works; great learning, 
solidity of thought ; but much, much that now 
cannot avail any longer. Certainly the spirit 
of that age was far better than that of ours ; 
is the form of our literature an improvement 
intrinsically, or only a form better adapted to 
our actual condition? I often think, the 
latter. Difficulty of speaking on these points 
without affectation. We know not what to 
think, and would gladly think something 
very striking and pretty. 

Sir W. Raleigh's Advice to his Son; worldly- 
wise, solid, sharp, farseen — The motto : " No- 
thing like getting on / " — Of Burleigh's Ad- 
vice the motto is the same ; the execution, if 

Antipodes. The huntsmen are up in America, and they 
are already past their first sleep in Persia." Garden of 
Cyrus, ad fin. 



I rightly remember, is in a gentler and more 
loving spirit. Walsingham's Manual^ I did 
not read. These men of Elizabeth's are like 
so many Romans or Greeks. Were we to 
seek for the Caesars, the Ciceros, the Pericles', 
Alcibiades' &c. of England, we should find 
them nowhere if not in that era. Wherefore 
are these things hid ? Or worse than hid, 
presented in false tinsel colours, originating 
in affected ignorance and producing affected 
ignorance ? Would I knew rightly about it, 
and could present it rightly to others ! For 
hear alas ! this mournful truth, nor hear it with 
a frown : 2 There, in that old age, lies the o?ily 
true poetical literature of England. The poets 
of the last age took to pedagogy (see Pope 
and his School) and shrewd men they were; 
those of the present age to ground and lofty 
tumbling, and it will really do your heart 
good to see how they vault ! 

1 A book attributed to Elizabeth's crafty and unscru- 
pulous minister, Sir Francis Walsingham, entitled Ar- 
cana Aulica or Walsingham's Manual of Prudential 
Maxims. It was not published till long after Walsing- 
ham's death. 

2 Dr. Johnson's impromptu while Miss Reynolds was 
pouring tea : 

" Yet hear, alas ! this mournful truth, 
Nor hear it with a frown, 
Thou can' st not make the tea so fast 
As I can gulp it down." 
Hawkins' Life of Johnson (1787), p. 345, and Dr. Birk- 
beck Hill's Johnsonian Miscellanies (1897), ii. 315. 



It is a damnable heresy in criticism to 
maintain either expressly or implicately that 
the ultimate object of Poetry is sensation. 1 
That of Cookery is such, but not that of Poetry. 

Sir W. Scott is the great Restaurateur of 
Europe: he might have been numbered 
among their Conscript Fathers ; he has chosen 
the worser part, and is only a huge Publicanus. 
What is his novel, any of them ? A bout of 
champagne, claret, port or even ale drinking. 
Are we wiser, better, holier, stronger ? No : 
we have been — amused. O Sir Walter, thou 
knowest too well, that Virtus laudatur et alget. 2 

Byron, good, generous, hapless Byron! 
And yet when he died he was only a Kraft- 
mann, Power-man as the Germans call them. 
Had he lived he would have been a Poet. 3 

I have read Shaftesbury's Characteristics 
(same date), but found it wofully difficult to 
keep my attention fixed on him. He is not 
at all a man according to my heart ; yet I 
would not deny him the credit of being a 

1" Sensation, even of the finest and most rapturous 
sort, is not the end but the means." " State of German 
Literature" (1827), Essays, i. 47, where the true nature 
of Poetry is discussed. 

2 " For Virtue is but drily prais'd and starves." Dry- 
den, Translation of Juvenal's Satires, i. 113. 

3 " With longer life all things were to have been hoped 
for from Byron." " State of German Literature," Essays, 

i- 59- 



man, that is a person conscious of himself 
and his actions, fixed and determined on all 
sides, not walking in darkness as others lead 
him, but in light as he leads himself. He is a 
Ciceronian sceptic, a philosopher of the eclec- 
tic school ; the child of Culture not of Nature; 
except to the men of his own age, therefore, 
or to the historian of them, he has little to say. 
Scarce a thought of his dwells with me, I am 
sorry to say ; for which tho' I and my circum- 
stances are partly, we are not wholly to blame. 
" Pinch " for strait ; " anything worth " ; 
" for good and all " &c. &c. — 

What shall I say of Herder's Ideen zur 
Philosophie der Geschichte der Menschheit? 1 
An extraordinary Book, yet one which by no 
means wholly pleaseth me. If Herder were 
not known as a devout man and clerk, his 
book would be reckoned atheistical. Every- 
thing is the effect of circumstances and or- 
ganisation : Er war was er seyn konnte / 2 
The breath of life is but a higher intensa- 
tion of Light and Electricity ! This is surely 
very dubious, to say no worse of it. Theo- 
ries of this and kindred sorts deform his 
whole work here and there. — Immortality not 
shewn us, but left us to be hoped for, and be- 
lieved by Faith. Yet this world, as he thinks, 

1 " Ideas on the Philosophy of the History of Mankind." 

2 " He was what it was possible for him to be." 



sufficiently explainable without reference to 
another : Humanitat the great object of Na- 
ture in all her arrangements of society; from 
the Troglodytes to the wits of Paris and 
Weimar. How true is this ? At least this 
ought to be our object. On the whole Herder 
shews much of it himself. If any thing he 
has a leaning to the East. But indeed he 
loves all men and all things: his very de- 
scriptions of animals and inanimate agencies 
are animated, cordial, affectionate; much more 
so those of men in their varied Thun und 
Treiben^ tho' perhaps the former are not less 

Strange ideas about the Bible and Reli- 
gion; passing strange we think them for a 
clergyman. Must see more of Herder : he is a 
new species in some degree ; a sort of Browne 
redivivus? — O Athens, modern Athens ! An- 
drew Thomson versus J. Gottfried Herder; 
the "Apocryphal Controversy" versus the 
Philosophy of Man ! Certainly we are the 
most intellectual people in nature at pre- 
sent. — 

Tieck's Genoveva is a poetical play. 
Golo, 2 I think, is best. Grimoald even has 
some touch of beauty. Genoveva second best. 
Martel one of the worst; and all the Saracens. 

1 " Doing and dealing." 

2 Golo, Grimoald, and the rest are characters in the play. 



Plan of it imitated from Gb'tz von Berlichin- 
gen ? Too much beautiful description of na- 
ture. Fine scene with the witch in Strasburg. 
Benno's death, &c, &c. 

Good Marchen, Melusine, in his own style 
follows. — Tieck is next to Goethe — now that 
Richter is gone. 

Hans Sachs is a curious fellow; both in 
age and character; full of humour, reading, 
honesty, good nature ; of the quickest obser- 
vation, three hundred years old, and — a 
shoemaker, what a strange medley may we 
not expect ! i Is his way of treating Heaven, 
Christus, &c. like that of our old Mysteries ? 
See the Tailor with the flag; St. Peter and the 
Landsknechts, &c. — Story of the water-doctor 
which I have heard applied to Habbie Bell of, 
Shortrig/ 2 In like manner the Monk and 
Miller's wife: so stories travel. — The Nar- 
renschneiden I think the best of his pieces : 
the Holen-Krapferi* is curious but more local in 
its interest. — What of these poetical Zunfts?^ 
Where are they to be learned of? 

S. Ranisch life of Hans Sachs (Altenb. 
1765); Reformationsalmanach, 1821, by Chr. 
Niemeyer. Busching has edited Sachs. — 

1 See Carlyle's essay on the " State of German Litera- 
ture" (1827), Essays, Vol. i. 

2 Shortrig is the name of a farm in Dumfriesshire ; 
Habbie Bell most likely the tenant of it. A. C. 

3 Das Krappfen-holn. 4 " Guilds." 



Books recommended in Herder. 

Beausobre, Mosheim, Brucker, W.alch, Jab- 
lonski, Semler (writers on the Church opin- 
ions ; the three last unknown to me). 

Caylus, St. Palaye — their writings col- 
lected from the Acad, des Inscriptions. 

Pfeiffer (on Church matters). 

Koch's Table des revolutions (trivial ?) 

Fischer, Sibirische Geschichte 

Whiston (What are his hist. & theological 

Rosler's Bibl. der Kirchenvater. 

Praise of Gibbon, p. 340 note. 

Gatterer's Abriss der Universalgeschichte 
(Gottingen 1773). 

Mascou's Geschichte der Deutschen (Leipz. 

Lucan, Mela, Columella, two Senecas, 
Quintilian, Martial, Florus, Columella — 

Velasquez, History of Spanish poetry — in 
German also (Gottingen 1769). ■ 

Ferrara's Hist, of Spain. 

Mannert's Geographie der Griechen und 
Romer (much praised). 

F. C. J. Fischer, Sitten und Gebrauche der 
Europaer im 5 und 6 Jahrhundert (1784). 

Fischer's Geschichte des deutschen Han- 
dels (The same Fischer ?) 

Le Bret's History of Venice. 



Moser's Osnabriickische Geschichte. 

Curne de Ste. Palaye, Chivalry of the Mid- 
dle Ages (in various treatises). 

( Reiske (orientalist), zum Thograi. 
( Cardonne (do) 

Poiret, Arnold (writers on Mystik). 

Fiissli, Geschichte (Ketzer- und Kirchen-) 
of the middle age. 

Middleton's Life of Cicero praised p. 203. 

Grellmann, Historisch Versuch iiber die 

Historical materials for the Slavonians, p. 
290. Miiller, Sulzer only known to me. 

Meierotto iiber die Sitten und Lebensart 
der Romer. Berlin, 1776. 

Paruta (who was he ? Wrote on the Ro- 
mans like Machiavel). 

Winckelmann, Geschichte der Kunst. 
(Must see that work). 

Heyne, Demster, Buonarroti on the Etrus- 
cans — also Paralipom. Passerii (!) Florence 

Spon, Stuart, Chandler, Riedesel's Travels 
in Greece. 

Heyne, Opuscula Academ. 

Meiners, Geschichte der Wissenschaften in 
Griechenland und Rom. 

Gillies has translated Lysias and Isocrates. 

Parrhasius painted the Demon Athenien- 
sium (strange mixture), Pliny. 

The Chest of Cypselus (Heyne's Essay on) 


— his mother hid him in a xu^s'Xrj (chest) & 
saved him from the Bacchiadae. 

Eichhorn, Ges. des Ostindischen Handels. 

Anquetil du Perron (orientalist). 

Pallas, Nordische Beitrage. 

Maillac, Hist, generate de la Chine. 

Camper, Dutch comparative anatomist — 
facial angle. 

Forster, Zimmermann, Geographers. 

Chardin, Voyages en Perse. 

Reimarus (a naturalist. Triebe der Thiere 
(are there two R's ?) 

Blumenbach de varietate gen. hum. 

Linnaei Amoenitates Academ. 

5th Dp r To-morrow I write out a Pros- 
pectus for a " Literary Annual 
Register." Not at all likely that the Biblio- 
polists will undertake such a thing at pres- 
ent; however we will try. 

To-day I have done, thought, said or seen 

— nothing. Sofliehen meine Tage/ 1 Why 
are the homines domes so happy ? Or is their 
happiness rather cause than effect? Willie 
Bell of Newfield 2 is not happy ; yet he is Mm- 
ited enough. 

Few men have the secret of being at once 
determinate (besHtnmt) and open ; of know- 

1 " Thus my days fly." 

2 Newfield, a farm near Ecclefechan and Hoddam Hill. 

A. C. 



ing what they do know, and yet lying ready 
for farther knowledge. 

Coleridge says, " Many men live all their 
days without ever having an idea; and some 
of them with thousands of things they call 
ideas; but an Idea is not a Perception or 
Image, it cannot be painted, it is infinite." 
Such was his meaning (not his words) : I 
half or three-fourths seem to understand him. 

Literary Annual Register might be the title 
of a work performing, for the intelligent part 
of the reading world, some such service as 
our many Forget-me-nots, Souvenirs &c seem 
to perform for the idle part of it. A work 
which should exhibit by such means as the 
Author found most attainable a compressed 
view of the actual progress of Mind in its 
various manifestations during the bygone 
year. It might consist : 

i. Of Biographical portraits of distinguished 
persons lately deceased; the year 1827 might 
contain Byron, Parr, Jean Paul, Talma &c. ; 
delineated with some degree of care and mi- 
nuteness, in the style of the German Romance 
(ein sehr unbekanntes Werk *) only at greater 
length, and with a more flowing, popular and 
anecdotic aspect. Not a dead detail of this 
or that man's actions and writings chrono- 
logically arranged, and backed with pieces 

1 " A very obscure work." 


justificatives ; but an attempt, at least, to 
bring a likeness of him before the reader ; for 
which purpose it would naturally be neces- 
sary first to have a likeness of him before 

2. Of Essays, Sketches, Miscellanies, of 
various sorts, but all tending to exhibit the 
distinctive phases of our existing style of Lit- 
erature, Morals and Manners, to point out its 
merits, and not hide its short-comings and 
perversions ; on which points several things 
might be adduced not a little surprising and 
perhaps unpalatable to the optimists and mob 
of gentlemen, that write with ease. Mechanics' 
Institutes], Doctrine of Utility &c. &c. 

3. Of Critiques, accompanied with consid- 
erable extracts, of the few really good books 
(or rather of the most considerable books) 
produced lately in England, Germany, France, 
Italy. This might be an interesting but ought 
not to become too extensive a department of 
the work. By right it should be an " Es- 
sence of Reviewing," a spirit of the literary 
produce of the year. 

4. If there was any one (such might per- 
haps be found) to give a similar account of 
the works of Art for the year; the chief stat- 
ues, pictures, engravings, a sheet or two might 
very profitably be allotted to that purpose. 

5. In case no better might be, I myself 
would undertake to say something about 



Science ; to gather from Journals foreign and 
domestic, something like a view of its actual 
condition and progress within the year. On 
this point to obtain help were no difficult 

6. Tho' we propose to waive the consider- 
ation of political and civil history, restricting 
ourselves purely to what is intellectual & 
moral; yet any such incidents, misfortunes, 
delusions, crimes, heroic actions as seemed 
strongly to illustrate the spiritual condition 
of man in our time, it would be well to col- 
lect, to sift, and preserve with as much accu- 
racy as might be. The Prince Hohenlohe, 
the Genevese Persecution ,the CommercialJoint 
Stock Mania, the Catholic Association &c. (pro- 
vided correct information could be obtained 
regarding them) were well worth a few words. 

Such are the leading elements of which this 
work might consist. These ought not to be 
arranged in distinct sections (at least not all 
of them), so much depends upon the particu- 
lar details of each individual year ; but min- 
gled together in such manner as the Author 
might judge most artist-like, and best calcu- 
lated to fulfil his object, that of conveying to 
the reader the truest impression he can give 
him of the general progress of intellect during 
the past year. 

Poetry would not be excluded here and 
there could such be come at; but from all 



" Odes written at — " " Lines to — " " Verses 
on — " &c. &c. and the whole genus of" Songs 
by a Person of Quality," good Lord deliver 
hooz / * 

If the Bookseller liked he might add a 
register of Patents &c. &c. and so recom- 
mend his work to " practical men." (N. B. 
Not do. Essayons /) 2 

7th December. " My whole life has been a 
continued night-mare; and 
my awakening will be in Hell." — Tieck. 

" There is just one man unhappy; he who 
is possessed by some idea which he cannot 
convert into an action, or still more which 
restrains and withdraws him from action." 
— Goethe. Wie wahr / 3 

"The end of man is an Action not a 
Thoughts — Aristotle. 4 

How many eulogies of Activity, and No- 
thing acted ! 

Adam is fabled by the Talmudists to have 

1 Vulgar Scotch pronunciation of "us." A. C. 

2 The project of this Annual Register came to nothing. 
3" How true ! " 

4 " Hadst thou not Greek enough to understand thus 
much : The end of Man is an Action, and not a Thought, 
though it were the noblest?" Sartor Resartus, Book 
ii. ch. vi. In his " Wotton Reinfred," — his unfinished 
story, written in 1827, — Carlyle again cites this saying, 
calling it "the wisest thing he [Aristotle] ever said." 
The doctrine was one of the permanent articles of Car- 
lyle's creed. The original is in the Ethics, x. 9. 1. 

6 81 


had a wife before Eve : she was called Lilis 
(see Faust — Goldne Hochzeit); and their 
progeny was all manner of terrestrial, aquatic 
and aerial — Devils ! — Burton. 1 

Read Zacharias Werner's Life by Hitzig, 2 
and his Mutter der Makkabaer, a Judaico- 
Christian Tragedy, attempting very unsuc- 
cessfully to represent the spirit of religious 
martyrdom. The play is surely bad in most 
respects. No character exhibited in the slight- 
est degree probable; no incident grounded 
on reality, no interest grounded on anything. 
Some half score of ghosts figure in the piece : 
Salome and her seven sons have no more life 
than the wooden characters in the well-known 
popular drama of Punch, Jason the renegate 
Highpriest, Antiochus, Nicanor (in a less de- 
gree) &c. &c. could have been tolerated by 
no true Artist. This is the only work of 
Werner's known to me ; and surely it has not 
increased my desire of becoming farther ac- 
quainted with him. I doubt much if he was 
a Poet. 

But what of his history ? A cloudy, vague, 
mystic existence it was; the true secret of 
which I am not sure that I can unravel. To 

1 Cited in Sartor Resartus, Book i., ch. v. 

2 In 1827 Carlyle published a long article on Werner. 
See Essays, Vol. i. He expresses in it a similar opinion 
on the Mutter der Makkabaer to that which he formed on 
first reading it. 



say that he was mad is saying little : the 
way in which fools unravel difficulties of that 
sort. His mother was mad ; for she believed 
herself to be the Virgin Mary, and that her 
son was the Shiloh promised to the Gentiles : 
but there is no such fatuity recorded of her 
son. He had been extremely dissolute, it 
would appear, in early life ; so much so that 
his character was utterly broken, and his sen- 
tient principles (strong at first) had got com- 
plete mastery over his intellectual. There is 
no knowing, in this case, what we may be 
brought to believe. On the whole he was no 
good man, this Werner: a sensualist, vain, 
truckling, greedy, bent from first to last not 
on being wise and good but on being gratified 
and what he called happy. Chateaubriand, 
Schlegel (Friedrich), Werner and that class 
of men among ourselves, are one of the dis- 
tinctive features of this time, when Babylon 
the Great is about to be destroyed (her doom 
is inevitably appointed) by Infidelity; and 
Religion (too much interwoven with that 
same Babylon) has not yet risen on her ruins, 
but seems rather (only seems) as if about to 
perish with her. — A curious Essay might be 
written on the customary " Grounds of hu- 
man Belief." — Yes, it is true! the decisions 
of Reason ( Vernunft) are superior to those of 
Understanding ( Verstand) : the latter vary in 
every age (by what laws?), while the former 



last forever, and are the same in all forms 
of manhood. — 

O Parson Alison, what an Essay on Taste 
is that of thine! 1 O most intellectual 
Athenians, what accounts are those you 
give us of Morality and Faith, and all that 
really makes a man a man! Can you be- 
lieve that the Beautiful and Good have no 
deeper root in us than "Association," " Sym- 
pathy," " Calculation ? " Then if so, whence 
in Heaven's name, comes this sympathy, the 
pleasure of this Association, the obbligante 
of this Utility ? You strive, like the witch 
of the Seethor (in Hoffmann) " to work from 
the outside inward," and two inches below 
the surface you will never get. 

Sir William Temple's works, I read several 
weeks ago; but for facts or opinions I 
scarcely find that I have drawn any from 
him, or indeed aught at all but the elevated, 
calm, accomplished, mildly sceptical, yet on 
the whole wise and benignant figure of the 
man himself. Indeed he was no Artist or 
speculative Philosopher, but a man of action ; 
almost the beau ideal of an English gentle- 

1 Essays on the Nature and Principles of Taste, by the 
Rev. Archibald Alison, Edinburgh, 1790. A second 
edition in 1811 was reviewed with high praise by Jeffrey 
in the "Edinburgh Review." Alison's Theory of Taste 
was based on the principle of " association." Dust lies 
heavy on the book now. 



man in the era of Queen Anne. He is not 
the best of conceivable characters, but I 
doubt greatly if we have improved. 

Apud se, " his own man." Burton (strange 
book that of his, yet full of amusement). 1 

" Conclusum est contra Manichaeos," 2 cried 
Thomas Aquinas smiting the table with his 
fist, and forgetful that he was at supper with 
— King Louis. 

"Ad haras aptius quam ad aras." 3 — 
"Mould-warps." " A gripe." " Pullus Jovis 
et gallinae filius albae." 4 "To overshoot 
himself" — go beyond his means. 

" Crambem bis coctam reponere," set out 
cabbage twice boiled — a nasty enough dish. 

The philosophy of Voltaire and his tribe 
exhilarates and fills us with glorying for a 
season; the comfort of the Indian who 
warmed himself at the flames of his — bed. 

1 This and the next entries are derived from The Anat- 
omy of Melancholy. 

2 " It is settled against the Manichaeans." 

3 " Fitter for styes than for altars." 

4 "Jove's chick, and the son of a white hen." Festus, 
in his de Significatione Verborum, says, "The ancients 
were wont to call the boy whom anyone loved his chick 
(pullum)," and gives a curious instance of one Q. Fabius, 
nicknamed ' ' Ivory ' ' because of the whiteness of his skin, 
who was called pullus Jovis, because scarred on the rump 
and not otherwise hurt by a thunderbolt. It appears 
from Juvenal, Satire xiii. 141, that the phrase gallinae filius 
albae was used proverbially for a favorite of fortune. 



" Deliquium." " Eating his own heart," 
Homer of Bellerophon. II. 3. (6 ?) 

A clown that killed his ass for drinking up 
the moon, ut Lunam mundo redderet 1 — In 
Ludfovicus] Vives. True of many critics of 
sceptics: the latter have not drunk up the 
moon but the reflexion of it in their own dirty 
puddle; therefore need not be slain. 2 — 
(Who was Lud. Viv. ? Should have a mod- 
ern Biographical Dictionary.) 

" Inter pontem et fontem, inter gladium et 
jugulum," 3 mercy may come to suicides. 

An asse and a mule went laden over a brook 

— the former with wool, the latter with salt; 
which being wetted was much lightened. 
u He told the Asse, who thinking to speed as 
well wet his packe likewise at the next water, 
but it was much the heavier, hee quite tired " 

— (Camerarius Emb.) Burton. 230 — 

A fool or a physician at forty ? Tiberius 
thought at thirty. Tacit. Annal. 6. 4 

1 " That he might restore the Moon to the world." 
2 Carlyle repeated this story at the end of his essay on 
Voltaire (1829). Essays, Vol. ii. 

3 "Between the bridge and the stream, 
Between the sword and the throat, — " 
with which compare the distich 

' ' Between the saddle and the ground, 
He mercy sought and mercy found." 
4 " He was accustomed to scoff at the arts of physi- 
cians, and at those who after they were thirty years old 
required advice as to what was serviceable or hurtful to 
their health." Annals, vi., 46. 



" Mosses " (for bogs) "and Marishes." 

" Nequaquam nos homines sumus, sed par- 
tes hominis; ex omnibus aliquid fieri potest, 
idque non magnum, ex singulis fere nihil." * 
(Scaliger.) Not men but man. 

" Sutton Coldfield in Warwickshire (where 
I was once a grammar Scholar) " — Burton. 

" Oldbury in the confines of Warwickshire, 
where I have looked about me with great 
delight, at the foot of which hill I was born." 
— And in a note — " At Lindley in Leices- 
tershire the possession and dwelling-house 
of Ralfe Burton Esquire my late deceased 

" Aganella a faire maid of Corcyra " held 
by some to be the inventor of Tennis; 
"for shee presented the first ball that ever 
was made to Nausicaa the daughter of 
King Alcinous, and taught her how to 
use it." 

" Carew's Survey of Cornwall," sometimes 
quoted by Johnson. — Ascham. — 

Domitian delighted to catch flies; Augustus 
to play with nuts amongst children; Alex- 
ander Severus was often pleased to play with 
whelps and young pigs. 

Glucupicron. Nocumentum Documentum. 

1 " In no wise are we men, but parts of man ; out of 
all something, at best no great thing, may be made ; out 
of individuals, scarce anything." 



Julius Caesar Scaliger was born at Ripa 
near Verona in 1484. His parentage was 
much contested in his lifetime: he himself 
(and his son) pretended a descent from the 
Princes of Verona ; but on this matter their 
assertions were " strongly doubted." Julius 
led a wandering life; first a page at some 
Court or other ; more than once in the army, 
then as physician at Agen in France and 
Paris where he died. He began to study in 
his 30 th year : his first publication was in [his] 
47* A man of vehement parts and temper; 
malleus scienliae, who amassed knowledge (of 
the kind then to be had) without stint; but 
seems to have been in regard to wisdom very 
scantily endowed even to the last. There is no 
life of him that I know except some details 
by his son Joseph Justus Scaliger, a man 
also of huge erudition, who removed from 
Paris to a Professorship at Leyden (with, ac- 
cording to Menage, a most contemptuous 
conge from Henry IV.) where he wrote An- 
notations, (Equations of the Calendar ?) and 
Letters concerning the Antiquity and Splen- 
dour of the Scaliger family ; and after a fair 
space "deed and did nocht ava\" * Has 
Bayle any Life of him or his father ? 

Roger Ascham's Life has been written by 

1 " Sandy Blackadder, factor at Hoddam (long ago), 
a heavy, baggy, big, long-winded man, was overheard 



Dr. Johnson; Edward Grant, the tutor of his 
son Giles, has likewise printed an Oratio de 
Vita et Obitu Rogeri Aschami. Chief work is 
his Schoolmaster (which I must see); his 
loxophilus ; Letters ; Letter on the State of 
Germany. Born 15 15 (at Kirby Wiske near 
Northallerton): died 1568. Was Queen 
Elizabeth's Tutor ; a Protestant, yet tolerated 
even favoured by Queen Mary. He seems 
to have liked good living; and is reported to 
have been very fond of " dice and cockfight- 
ing " ! Yet undoubtedly a good sort of man, 
and one well worth my study, which accord- 
ingly by Heaven's grace he shall not fail to 
have. (18 th December.) 

Accipite cives veneti quod est optimum in 
rebus humanis : res humanas contemnere. 1 — 
Sebastian Foscarini, Doge of Venice, made 
this be engraved on his tomb. 2 

one day, in a funeral company which had not yet risen, 
discoursing largely in monotonous undertones to some 
neighbors about the doings, intentions, and manifold in- 
significant proceedings of some anonymous fellow-man ; 
but at length wound up with ' and then he deed and did 
nought ava.' " Letters and Memorials of Jane Welsh 
Carlyle, i. 315, note. 

1 " Hear, citizens of Venice, what is best in human af- 
fairs : to hold them in low esteem." 

2 This inscription may have been engraved on the 
tomb of a Doge, but no Sebastian Foscarini was ever 
Doge of Venice. Marco Foscarini was Doge in 1762, 
but the words cited seem of earlier date. 



Ludovicus Vives was a Spaniard, at one 
time Tutor to Queen Mary, but obliged to 
leave England on occasion of Queen Cather- 
ine his patroness' divorce, which he disap- 
proved. He is buried at Bruges. His works 
are in two folios (it seems), analogous to 
those of les Daciers, les Saumaises. 1 

Sir T. Browne was born in 1605 at London ; 
father a merchant : he died on his birthday 
1682 at Norwich. Knighted by Charles II. 
The Religio Medici made a mighty noise at 
its first appearance, over all Europe. Alex- 
ander Ross opposed Browne on this as on 
all occasions. Whitefoot, a contemporary, 
has written a life of Browne (prefixed I 
suppose to some edition of his works): so 
also has Dr. Johnson (do.). Browne had 
travelled over Europe; been at Padua uni- 
versity &c. 

Of Burton the Anatomiser of Melancholy 
little is to be learned. Materials for a life 
of him were collected by Peck. (Who were 
these Pecks, Birches, &c. ?) He was a 
younger brother; was born 1576; obtained 
some little ecclesiastical preferment at Oxford 
and in the neighborhood ; was a melancholic 
man himself; the saddest in his dark fits and 
one of the gayest and brightest in his lucid 
intervals. A firm believer in astrology ; and 
1 See ante, p. 4. 


dying at the very time his horoscope calcu- 
lated by himself, some people suspected he 
" had assisted Nature." His book under- 
taken for his own cure did not cure him : in 
his black mood he used to go down to the 
river side (at Oxford?) and listen to the 
ribaldry of the boatmen, which made him 
laugh till his sides ached again. Credat 
Apella / If the man had been rightly melan- 
choly, all the ribaldry in nature would have 
failed to win a smile from him. His Brother 
(elder) wrote a history of Leicestershire (their 
native county) for which he is thought worthy 
of the main article in the Biog. Britan. 


Once upon a time a man, somewhat in 
drink belike, raised a dreadful outcry at the 
corner of the market place, " that the world 
was all turned topsy-turvy, that the men and 
cattle were all walking with their feet upper- 
most, that the houses and earth in general 
(if they did not mind it) would fall into the 
sky; in short that unless the most prompt 
means were taken, things in general were on 
the high road to the Devil." As the people 
only laughed at him, he cried the more vehe- 
mently, nay at last began to objure to foam 
and imprecate, when a goodnatured auditor 

1 " This and the following fables are reprinted, slightly 
altered, in Carlyle's Essays," Vol. i, Appendix. 



going up took the Orator by the haunches, 

and softly inverting his position, set him down 

— on his feet. The which upon perceiving 

his mind was staggered not a little. " Ha ? 

Deuce take it ! " said he, rubbing his eyes : " so 

it was not the world that was hanging by its 

feet, but I that was standing on my head ! " 

Public Censor, Castigator Morum, Radical 

Reformer, by whatever name thou art called ! 

Have a care ! Especially if thou art getting 

loud, look to it ! _,.. T . 

Pilpay Junior. 

The instruction communicated by Fable is 
in its nature chiefly prohibitive ; therefore 
not the highest species, which latter belongs 
to the Province of Poetry. (?) 

Nothing harder than to form a true judge- 
ment of foreign minds and forms of charac- 
ter, especially if they are separated from us 
by diversity of language, institution, date and 
place. A Bond-street Tailor can pronounce 
with extreme readiness and certainty about 
the beauty or deformity of foreign costumes, 
and his judgement will be satisfactory to 
other Bond-street Tailors; a Winckelmann 
with far less readiness and certainty, and 
other Artists and Critics may dispute or 
deny his decision after all. For the one only 
asks himself: Does this differ from the fash- 
ion of Lord Petersham ? but the other : Does 



this differ from the fashion of God Almighty ? 
— You Travellers, Moores, Clarkes, Russels, 
Morgans ! Ye should think of this. 

What a fine thing a Life of Cromwell, like 
the Vie de Charles XII would be ! The wily 
fanatic himself, in his own most singular fea- 
tures, at once a hero and a blackguard petti- 
fogging scrub; and the wild image of his 
Times reflected from his accompaniment ! I 
would travel ten miles on foot to see his soul 
represented as I once saw his body in the 
Castle of Warwick. — 

" Nave ferar magna an parva, ferar unus et 
idem." 1 
" Durum et durum non faciunt murum." 2 
Two railers elicit no truth? — "Self-do, self- 
have." ("His ain wand '11 whip him."). — 
Helena's Nepenthe? supposed by some to be 
Borage, by others to be Opium, by others 
(me among them) to be — nothing. 


" Gentlemen," said a Conjuror, one fine 
starry evening, "these Heavens are a deceptio 

1 " Whether borne on a great ship or a small, let me be 
borne one and the same man." — Horace, Epist. II. ii. 200. 

2 " Hard and hard make not a wall." 

3 A drug "which lulls sorrow and strife, and brings 
forgetfulness of every ill." Odyssey, iv. 221. 



visus, what you call stars are nothing but 
fiery motes in the air: wait a little I will 
clear them off, and shew you how the matter 
really is." Whereupon the Artist produced a 
long syringe of great force; and stooping 
over the neighbouring puddle rilled it with 
dirty water, which he then squirted with 
might and main towards the zenith. The 
wiser of the party unfurled their umbrellas ; 
but most part looking up in triumph, cried : 
" Aha, my little stars ! are ye out at last ? I 
always thought you cheats: we have long 
been — " Here the dirty water fell; and be- 
spattered and beblotched these simple per- 
sons ; and even put out the eyes of several, 
so that they never saw the stars any more. 

Critic ! Truth, Beauty, Goodness is the 
Heaven and the Stars : These, the very 
meanest of them, no effort of thy syringe is 
likely to reach : and the higher thy puddle- 
jet, the weightier and dirtier will be its re- 
turn! Qui spuit in coelum in se spuit (P) 1 

January, Read Mendelssohn's Phadon, a 
1827. half translation, half imitation of 

Plato's Phaedon, or last thoughts 
of Socrates on the Immortality of the Soul. 
Plato's work I have never seen but must 
see. Mendelssohn's is certainly written with 
great beauty and simplicity : the intro- 

1 " He who spits at heaven spits on himself." 


ductory part concerning the character of 
Socrates is almost a model of graceful modest 
narrative ; what follows is in a more difficult 
style but scarcely less perfect. The work is 
divided into three Dialogues : the First (so far 
as I can remember) treats of the highest good 
of man, namely wisdom, and proves that it 
is a blessing to get out of the body to philoso- 
phize. The Second, in answer to some objec- 
tions from two of the interlocutors, endeav- 
ours to prove the immateriality of the Soul, a 
necessary condition of its indivisibility and 
immortality. It is an answer to the Free- 
thinkers' scheme in Martinus Scriblerus : 
"The Jack has a meat-roasting quality ; so 
likewise, &C." 1 Socrates' arguments turn on 
this principle : all those qualities, indeed all 
unity of any sort perceived in an object, be- 
longs not to the object but to the mind that 
sees it; hence this subject (the mind) from 
which all qualities originate cannot itself be a 
quality. (?) It cannot be a composite power; 
because there is in reality no change of power 
produced by a mixture of simple powers, but 

1 " In every jack there is a meat-roasting quality, which 
neither resides in the fly, nor in the weight, nor in any 
particular wheel of the jack, but is the result of the whole 
combination : so in an animal, the self-consciousness is 
not a real quality inherent in one being (any more than 
meat-roasting in a jack) but the result of several modes 
or qualities in the same subject." Memoirs of the ex- 
traordinary Life, Works, and Discoveries of Martinus 
Scriblerus, Book i, ch. 12. 



only a modification, the secret of which escap- 
ing our sense, we call it a new power, but 
falsely. An acid and an alkali produce a 
neutral salt : what then ? Tho' to our eyes, 
taste, touch &c, the properties of this new 
substance seem entirely different from those 
of its component parts, the truth is not so ; 
there is nothing in it, but some virtues of the 
acid obstructed, forwarded, cancelled, diver- 
ted &c, by the virtues of the alkali; and so 
in #// corporeal compositions: the newness oi 
the power is only in our way of viewing it. 
Hence the component parts of the soul 
would be all souls ; hence the soul is one; 
hence indestructible, indivisible, immortal. 
The Third Dialogue meets the objection of 
Cebes : How do we know that the soul is 
not to fall into sleep (if not death) forever ? 
It is chiefly Mendelssohn's own; talks of 
Perfectibility (not of man alone but of the 
whole universe ) ; Unhappiness of disbelief in 
these truths, &c. &c; much less scientific 
and more rhetorical than the foregoing. On 
the whole, it is a good book; — and con- 
vincing ? Ay de mi! These things, I 
fear, are not to [be] proved, but believed; 
not seized by the Understanding but by 
Faith. However, it is something to remove 
errors, if not introduce truth ; and to shew 
us that our analogies drawn from corporeal 
things are entirely inapplicable to the case. 


For the present, I will confess it, I scarce 
see how we can reason with absolute cer- 
tainty on the nature or fate of attiring; 
for it seems to me we only see our own 
perceptions and their relations; that is to 
say, our soul sees only its own partial re- 
flex and manner of existing and conceiv- 
ing. I should have this cleared up : How 
does Kant manage it ? — (" White men know 

" A weeping woman is as much to be pitied 
as a goose going barefoot." — Burton. 

"Done to his hand." — South. (What a 
fierce, dogmatical, sarcastic, unchristian priest 
is South !) 

" Sleeveless errand." — Burton. 

" Looks out at window." — B. " all out " 
— quite. 

Mali corvi malum ovum ; } Cat to her kind. 

" Non qua eundum, sed qua itur." 2 

It was Petronius that wrote that hemistich : — 
Primus in orbe deos fecit Timor. 

(Was he the author of the sentiment 7 3 it 
is now trite enough.) 

l'*The bad egg of a bad crow." The origin and 
significance of this proverb are discussed by Erasmus, 
Adagiorum Chil. i. Cent. ix. Prov. 25. 

2 " Not where one should go, but where one is going." 

3 " Fear first made the gods in the world." The words 
form part of the first verse of a fragment ascribed to Pe- 
tronius, but they are also part of a verse by Statius, 

7 97 


C'est nos craintes qui ont forme les cieux; a 
line at which I once in the Theatre Francais 
heard all the people standing up raise a vehe- 
ment shout of approval. Unhappy France ! 
Talma was then acting, CEdipe : he is now 
dead ; one by one the stars go out. 

" As common as a Barber's chair." 

7 Jany After a considerable struggle, and 
1827. not without many interruptions, I 
have this morning finished Burton's 
Anatomy of Melancholy. What to say of the 
Book parum constat)- Dr. Johnson was in the 
habit of commending it; 2 but chiefly, I should 
think, from its subject, which with the Doctor 
was constitutionally interesting. Burton doubt- 
less had " a pleasant wit," a taste also for the 
Beautiful (especially if it was the Comfortable 
at the same time) and still more for the Cu- 
rious ; but his mind looks as if he had sur- 
veyed the world chiefly from the observatory 
of his Library in an Oxford College ; and 
found the gratification of these his tastes not 
so much in actual inspection of things with 

Thebaid, iii. 661. It is impossible, in the uncertainty 
concerning the date of Petronius, to say to which poet 
they actually belong. 

1 " Is hardly clear." 

2 " Burton's 'Anatomy of Melancholy ' he said, was the 
only book that ever took him out of bed two hours 
sooner than he wished to rise." Reported by the Rev. 
Dr. Maxwell in his Collectanea : printed by Boswell in his 
Life of Johnson. 

9 S 


his simple vision, as with armed vision, armed 
by all the reading that it ever entered into the 
head of lazy Bookworm to engage with. He 
is a singular, a thinking, observing, character- 
voile man ; but of no admirable gifts (except 
memory), and of little or no wisdom but what 
distinguishes the greater part of English 
country Parsons; a cleanly, comfort-loving, 
Greek-and-Latin-reading, but often too sec- 
tarian and self-conceited, and withal shallow 
and ill-informed race of persons. As a sci- 
entific treatise his Book is worth absolutely 
nothing : I may say there is no conclusion in 
it in which anything is concluded. Dunce 
neutralizes Dunce, and one quack prescrip- 
tion stands (like bane and antidote) fronting 
with hostile visage another as quackish. The 
work is an olla podrida ; you cannot eat the 
cursed dish as it stands cooked before you; 
and tho' you pick many a most dainty morsel 
from it, you wish with your whole soul the 
man had been contented with purveying, and 
never tried to cook the viands at all. (Schlechles 
Bild/ 1 ) Burton however is over, and I do 
not purpose soon to trouble him again. 

Sapientia prima est stultitid caruisse 2 " The 
prime wisdom is to have got rid of folly;" fully 

l" A bad image." 

2 — sapientia prima 

Stultitia caruisse. Horace, Epist. i. i. 41. 



as well thus: Stultitia prima est sapientid ca- 
ruisse; the case of all material metaphysicians, 
most utilitarian moralists, and generally of all 
negative Philosophers, by whatever name they 
call themselves. 

It was God that said Yes : it is the Devil 
that forever says No. 1 

Leibnitz and Descartes found all Truth to 
rest in our seeing and believing in God : we 
English have found our seeing and believing 
in God to rest on all Truth j and pretty work 
we have made of it ! 

Why dost thou despise that ignorant and 
ill-mannered man, while thou pitiest and help- 
est that poor and ragged one ? — I give the 
pauper sixpence and my blessing; but if his 
rags offend the nostril, I contrive to make 
him go his ways. 

Is not Political Economy useful; and 
ought not Joseph Hume and MacCulloch 
to be honoured of all men ? — My cow is 
useful, and I keep her in the stall, and feed 
her with oil -cake and " draff-and-dreg," and 
esteem her truly: but shall she live in my 

1 " The Everlasting No had said : ' Behold, thou art 
fatherless, outcast, and the Universe is mine [the 
Devil's].'" Sartor Resartus, Book ii. ch. vii. 



parlour? No, by the Fates, she shall live 
in the stall! — 


" It is I that support this household," said 
a Hen one day to herself: "The master can- 
not breakfast without an egg, for he is dys- 
peptical and would die, and it is I that lay 
it. And here is this lazy Poodle doing no- 
thing earthly, and gets thrice the meat I do, 
and is caressed all day ! By the Cock of 
Minerva, they shall give me a double portion 
of corn, or I will strike ! " But much as she 
cackled and creaked, the scullion would not 
give her an extra grain. Whereupon in dud- 
geon, she hid her egg in the dunghill, and 
did nothing but cackle and creak all day. 
The scullion suffered her for a week; then 
(by order) drew her neck; and purchased 
other eggs at six-pence the dozen ! 

Man ! why frettest and whinest thou ? This 
blockhead is happier than thou, and still but 
a blockhead ? So thy services are not ade- 
quately repaid ? But art thou sure thou dost 
not overrate them? 1 At all rates it is vain 
for thee to strike work with Providence : He 
is no Manchester manufacturer; Him thou 
canst not force to thy terms. Believe it he 

l Cf. Sartor Resartus, Book ii. ch. ix., where these re- 
flections are developed. 



will do without thee. 77 rty a point d'hofnme 

1 6th J anuary , Qui spuit in coelum in se spuit. x 
1827. (perhaps wrong arranged, for 

I write from memory.) 

Who was Gassendi ? and what were his Me- 
taphysics ? I have seen his Commentaries on 
Newton ; but know nothing more of him j 
yet he is said (by Reinhold) to be the father 
of the existing French Philosophy. 

Locke, Hume, Reid &c. &c. are Empirics; 
Descartes, Leibnitz, Kant &c. are Rational- 
ists. Which is right ? I begin to see some 
light thro' the clouds in Kantism ; tho' Rein- 
hold is somewhat of a Will-o'-wisp guide, I 
fear. Empiricism, if consistent, they say, 
leads direct to Atheism! — I am afraid it does. 

Yes, Virtue is its own reward; but in a 
very different sense than you suppose, Dr. 
Gowkthrapple ! 2 " The pleasure it brings " ? — 
Had you ever a diseased liver ? I will main- 

1 " Who spits at the sky spits on himself." 

2 "That chosen vessel, Maister Gowkthrapple." 

Waverley, ch. xxix. 
In his Essay on Diderot Carlyle speaks of Naigeon, 

Diderot's biographer, " as a man with the vehemence of 

some pulpit-drumming Gowkthrapple." 


tain, and appeal to all competent judges, that 
no evil conscience with a good nervous sys- 
tem ever caused tenth part of the misery that 
a bad nervous system tho' conjoined with the 
best conscience in nature will always produce. 
What follows then ? Pay off your moralist, 
and hire two Apothecaries and two Cooks. 
Socrates is inferior to Captain Barclay, and 
the Enchiridion of Epictetus must hide its 
head before Kitchener's Peptic Precepts. 
Heed not the Immortality of the Soul, so 
long as you have Beefsteak, Port, and — 
Blue Pills ! — Das hole der Teufel / — Virtue 
is its own reward because it needs no reward. 

The Hildebrands, the Philips and the Borgias 
Where are they now ? Behind the scene ; mute as 
The millions whom they butchered in their rage. 
Hard task they had, poor men : what was their 

From God, we know not, but may dread the worst ; 
From man, a grave and memory forever curst : 
Who worships self a foolish thought has ween'd, 
Must offer all, and find his God — a Fiend. 
(Our cousin Swift has no turn for poetry.) 

To prove the existence of God as Paley 
has attempted to do (a Kantean would say) 
is like lighting a lantern to seek for the Sun : 
if you look hard by your lantern, you may 
even miss your search. 



" My dear Sir," said Captain Esbie, "there 
is nothing like getting on" Ay de mil 

"The artist," it has been said, "collects 
beauties and combines them; a bright eye 
from this, a fair round chin from that, a taper 
form from the other, and so makes up his 
Venus." Ah no ! In this way he will form 
a bed-quilt or a hearth-rug, but no poem. 

A Poem springs, like Minerva from the 
head of Jove, full armed and complete, if it 
is to live and give life. 

Do we think sometimes, as Schlegel says, 
without thoughts ? Or what wind is it that 
will rend asunder the thick clouds, and shew 
us the fair golden landscape lying full perfect 
and ready-formed without our having shaped 
it, otherwise than in the dark ? Yet was not 
Praxiteles' Jove created in this fashion, when 
the evening song of the maidens coming from 
the well revealed it to the struggling and long- 
baffled statuary ? There is more in the poet's 
heart than Mr Alison or Mr Stewart dreams 
of. Bring it out then an' be hanged ! — 
Eheu! — 


" What is the use of thee, thou gnarled sap- 
ling ? " said a young larch-tree to a young 
oak. "I grow three feet in the year, thou 
scarcely half as many inches ; I am straight 


and taper as a reed, thou weak and twisted 
as loosened withe": — "And thy duration," 
answered the Oak, " is some third part of 
man's life; and I flourish for a thousand years. 
Thou art felled, and sawed into paling, where 
thou rottest and art burnt after a single sum- 
mer: of me are fashioned battleships, and I 
carry mariners and heroes into unknown seas." 

The richer a character, the harder and 
slower in general is its development. Two 
boys were once of the same class in our Edin- 
burgh school; John ever trim precise and 
dux, Walter ever slovenly confused and dolt : 
in due time John became Baillie Waugh, and 
Walter became Sir Walter Scott. 

The quickest and completest of all vegeta- 
bles is — the Cabbage. 

The fraction of life will increase equally by 
diminishing the denominator as by augment- 
ing the numerator. 1 [March, 1827.] 


A popular delusion is like smoke : it is vain 

1 " So true it is, what I then said, that the Fraction of 
Life can be increased in value not so much by increasing 
your Numerator as by lessening your Denominator. Nay, 
unless my Algebra deceive me, Unity itself divided by 
Zero will give Infinity." Sartor Resartus, Book ii. ch. ix. 



to cut into it with swords and maces; leave 
it alone, and the air will absorb it by degrees. 
If it is in small quantity, &fan may sometimes 
help you ; not if it is in great ; but there is 
always hope in the air. 

" Lieber ware mir's, wenn ich plotzlich 
sttirbe." 1 Winckelmann [letter to Berends] 
12 July, 1751. 

" Marco Barbarigo and Franc. Trevisano, 2 
two Nobilidi Venetia, whose memory has been 
preserved in a rare piece of writing," are the 
only two modern Friends, thinks Winckel- 
mann. Where is the Schrift?* 

Friendship not once mentioned in the 
whole New Testament (so also says Hume) ; 
und es ist vielleicht ein Gliick vor die 
Freundschaft ; denn sonst bliebe gar kein 
Platz vor den Uneigennutz; 4 all virtues hav- 
ing there some temporal or eternal recom- 

1 " I should be glad if I could die suddenly." 

2 Carlyle cites the baptismal names incorrectly ; see 
the following note. 

3 Letter to Berends, 17 Sept., 1754. The "rare piece 
of writing" referred to is entitled Breve racconto dell' 
amicizia mostruosa in perfezione tra Niccolb Barbarigo e 
Marco Trivisano. In Venezia, 1627, in 8vo. A Latin 
translation seems to have been published the next 

4 "And this is perhaps fortunate for friendship, for 
otherwise there would have been no place for unselfish- 
ness." Id. 



pense promised them. — No wonder Goethe 
calls him a Heide. x 


Mein Gott ich wollte sehr gerne sterben, 

mit grosser Wohllust meiner Seele: so weit 
habe ich es in der That und Wahrheit 
gebracht. — Winckel. — 2 

Ich habe nunmehro bald sechs Jahre in 
Sachsen gelebet, und kann mich nicht entsin- 
nen dass ich recht gelacht habe. 3 

Allein : Erkenntlichkeit verlangen, heisst 
beynahe — Undank verdienen. 4 

Dr. Ebel best traveller in Switzerland. 

Villemain, an able writer of Melanges. 

Comte de Lacepede — general Hist, of 
Europe, in 18 vol. — last — 1827. Consider- 
ably praised ; apparently (from the extract) a 

Cicognara's History of Sculpture. 

Spanish writers (from an article in the 
Revue encyclopedique). h 

1 " Him," that is, Winckelmann, " a heathen." 

2 «« My God I would very willingly die, with entire de- 
light of my soul: so far have I attained in deed and 
truth." Letter to Berends, 17 Sept., 1754. 

3 " I shall soon have lived six years in Saxony, and I 
cannot recall having once honestly laughed." Id., 6 
July, 1754. 

4 " But to require gratitude comes very near deserving 
unthankfulness." Id., 10 March, 1755. 

5 Tome XXXIII, Feb. 1827. The article is by Muriel. 



Leandro-Fernandez de Moratin (the 
younger) regarded here as the restorer of 
the dramatic art in Spain. Has written five 
or six Comedies (indifferent apparently and 
in the style of the French) ; first in 1788 : he 
seems to be still living. 1 

Barthelemy Torres Naharro — a play-writer 
of the 1 6th century. 

Pinciano Philosophy of ancient Poesy. 1596. 

Luzan {Poetics, Saragossa 1737) insists on 
the French principles of taste. Followed up by : 

Mayans (Rhetoric); Nasarre (prefacer of 
Cervantes & comedies); Montiano y Luy- 
ando (who wrote a comedia of his own). 

Nicolas-Fernandez de Moratin (the father) 
put forth three tragedies — moderates. 

Cadahalso, Ayala, Huerta, Palacios wrote 
plays also about the same time. The best 
seemingly of only moderate merit; and in 
imitation of the French. 

Sempere (Best writers under the reign of 
Charles III. In Spanish I presume tho' it is 
not so stated). 

"The muses of [Lope de Vega] Montal- 
van, Calderon, Moreto, Rojas, Soils, Zamora 
and Caiiizares; those of Bazo, Regnard 
(French ? ) Laviato, Corneille, Moncin, Me- 
tastasio, Cornelia, Moliere,Valladares, Racine, 
Zabala, Goldoni, Nifo and Voltaire were aston- 
ished at seeing themselves in company" [p. 469]. 
1 He died in 1828. 


D. Gaspar Melchior de Jovellanos wrote 
the Delinquenie Honrado in 1770; a drame, 
full of honest sentiments, if not of great 
poetry. Genre mixte. 

Trigueros, Melendez Valdes, Cristophe- 
Maria Cortes, had three prizes for plays in 
1784. Indifferent. 

Tomas Iriarte ; sl satirist and sensible man, 
but of no divine fire. 

Juan de Iriarte — another of the same. 

The period between 1780 and 1790 the 
last years of the reign of Charles III. have 
been most illustrious ; the government anxious 
to forward improvement in any way, and tho' 
arbitrary, enlightened and energetic. Here 
" Jovellanos, Campomanes, Tavira, Roda and 
Llaguno were at once the pride and the 
support of philosophy and sound literature." 

Boscan and Garcilaso were named Petrar- 
quistes, as their modern successors are called 

Hurtado de Mendoza, Saa de Miranda, 
Montemayor, Herrera (surnamed the Divine), 
Father Louis de Leon, Gil Polo were all 
Petrarquists, yet " the glory of Spanish Lit- 

Abbe Quadrio Sioria poetica (Italian ? ) 
Capmany, Marchena — men of mould ? 

What is the present state of Literature in 
Spain ? How deep and total is our ignor- 
ance on that point at present! Is there such 



a thing as a Madrid Review ? A Spanish 
newspaper would shew to us almost like a 
Herculaneum one. This should be altered. 
N. B. The Revue Encydopedique a review 
of merit, and worthy to be imitated and 
improved upon in Britain. 

Nearly 14 millions of volumes are printed 
annually in France ; of these 400,000 by F. 

665 printing offices in all France; 82 at 
Paris: in 1825, there were 1550 presses in 
activity, in Paris 850 of these. 

At Paris there are 480 Booksellers, and 84 
Boothkeepers ; elsewhere 922. 

The whole money annually gained in the 
producing of those 14 to 13 millions of 
volumes, the Count Daru estimates at 33,- 
750,000 francs; comprehending all from the 
wages of the ragman to those of the Author. 
Authors, it seems, come in for a very poor 
share 500,000 francs being their whole in- 
come in France. 1 

In this the newspapers seem not to be 
comprised, at least not the daily ones, the 
feuilles quotidiennes. 

Grassi, Niccolini, Pezzana, Gherardini, 
Abbe Romani, Monti, Italian Grammarians 
of some note. 

1 See Revue encyclope'digtie, xxxiii. 562. 


Foscolo, Rossetti, Troya, etc., etc. Com- 
mentators of Dante, who is at present lit- 
erally the idol of Italians. 

Champollion's system of Phonetic char- 
acters has been well received in Italy : Mai, 
Peyron, Orioli, Valeriani " savans les plus re- 
commendables " do justice to him. 

The Biblioteca Italiana of Milan and the 
Antologia of Florence contend the first for 
the Romantics, the second for the Classics ; 
a dispute which seems at present to be 
spreading over most part of Europe. The 
Arcadic Journal of Rome is a classicist, but 
often with more zeal than judgement. The 
Anthology seems to be the best of these three. 

Gherardini, the translator and impugner of 
SchlegePs Dramaturgic lectures. 

Manzoni, a poet and romanticist, but who 
has failed in exemplifying his new theories as 
applied to the practice of writing tragedies — 
The Count of Carmagnola and Adelghis are 
their titles. 

Thomas Grossi a young poet, praised for 
his Ildegonda, has written a new Epic entitled : 
The Lombards in the first Crusade ; which 
some have said, surpasses Jerusalem Delivered. 
The pamphlets on the subject have been 
numerous and loud : our French critic asserts 
modestly that it is neither so good nor 
so bad as it has been called. Grossi is a 



The town of Milan alone publishes about 
a score of Journals. 

Wagner, Weiller, Hegel, Krug, are testators, 
opposers or commentators of Kant. Eschen- 
mayer also. 

Bardili's Rational Realism, is it not like the 
doctrine of Malebranche ? 

Bouterwek, System of Virtuality : " the sub- 
jective and objective are nothing without 
each other." 

Annihilation of the Subject — Spinosism and 

Fichte's Transcendental Idealism, " elimi- 
nation of the object ; " that is deducing the 
not-me from the me ? 

Schelling's Ideal Realism, Philosophy of Na- 
ture, but usually called the System of Identity ; 
" because it represents the subject and the 
object as absolutely identical and comming- 
ling and compounding themselves in intellec- 
tual intuition." — To this I can attach next to 
no meaning. 

Fichte pretended to have deduced his sys- 
tem from Kant, which Kant eagerly denied. 
Kant's system of morality is universal in Ger- 
many; his metaphysics are disfigured, mis- 
represented, no longer studied in his own 
writings, but (says this critic) well worthy of 
being studied. 

Kant reminded me of father Boscovich : 



but alas ! I have only read ioo pages of his 
works. How difficult it is to live! How 
many things to do, how little strength, how 
little time to do them ! T. C. 

There is an Historical Sketch of Indus- 
trialism by one Dunoyer; 1 a political theory 
this Industrialism of which I have hitherto 
never heard, and which seems to mean very 
little if anything. According to the Indus- 
triels (the chief of whom was one Saint-Simon, 
reputed mad) the proper object of legislation 
is not this or that form of political govern- 
ment, but the means of forwarding useful ac- 
tivity which is or ought to be the ultimate 
aim of all existing nations. — God help us! 
has not this been understood and admitted in 
all systems of political philosophy for the last 
century. St. Simon was for wonders upon 
wonders; a sort of priesthood of Savans, 
and what not. " II se maria pour faire des 
hommes de genie, et n'eut pas mSme des 
enfants." — poor soul ! — He said he was de- 
scended from Charlemagne. I understand, 
he is dead. Thierry, Maignien, Auguste 
Comte are more sensible men, who wrote 
for him, and allowed themselves to be called 
his pupils. 

Mem. To read the Golden Ass of Apuleius. 
Burney's Life of Metastasio. 

lln the Revue encyclopidique, Feb., 1827. 
8 113 


Of the world, for us, is made a world- 
edifice ; of the Aether a Gas ; of God a 
Power; and of the second world a Coffin. — 
Jean Paul, Levana. 

Intellectual Individuality to be respected 
and maintained; moral Individuality to be 
modified, but only by strengthening antagonist 
qualities, not weakening those that appear 
originally in excess. "Thus let Frederick 
the Only (der Einzige) take his Flute, and 
Napoleon his Ossian." 

" Our present time is indeed a criticising 
and critical one ; hovering betwixt the wish 
and the inability to believe, a chaos of 
conflicting times: but even a chaotic world 
must have some Point, and Revolution 
round that Point, and Aether too; there is 
no pure entire Confusion and Discord, but 
all such presupposes its Contrary, before it 
can begin." 

" But from of old, among nations the Head 
has outrun and got before the Heart ; often 
by centuries, as in the Negro trade ; nay by 
tens of centuries, as perhaps in war." 

Light goes quicker than warmth: hence 
every new intellectual revolution, seems at 
first destructive to morality. 

" When in your last hour (think of this) all 
within the broken spirit shall fade away, and 
die into inanity, Imagining, Thinking, En- 
deavouring, Enjoying — then at last blooms 



on the night-flower of Belief alone, and re- 
freshes with its perfume in the last darkness." 

Heyne's Virgil, Leipzig, 1803,4 vol. 8vo., 
the best edition (the London ones were mis- 
managed); there is also a " Hand edition" of 
1803 in 2 vol.; but whether it does not want 
something I know not. This Book I must 
have. 1 

Tibullus, Pindar, Homer (8 vol. Leipz. & 
London. 1822) 

Sammlung antiquarischer Aussatze. 1778- 
1779; about the Laocoon, Venus, Pliny's Au- 
thorities, &c &c ; the Chest of Cypselus among 
the rest. 

An immensity of papers in the Gottingen 
Society. Chiefly upon Art (Etruscan &c.) and 
the philosophy of Fables and My thuses. Some- 
thing of Sparta. Of the influence of sudden 
increase of wealth in ancient states. Of Baby- 
lonian women annually at the Temple of Venus. 
On Winckelmann's history of Art. &c. &c. 

filoges &c. Michaelis, Miiller, Gmelin, 
Kattner, Gatterer, &c. 

Prolusiones Academicae (at London. 1790 
no table of contents; but I suppose all in- 
cluded in the) 

Opuscula Academica. Gotting. 1785- 
1812. Chiefly on Aesthetical Antiquity. De 

1 The following paragraphs contain a list of Heyne's 



morum vi ad sensum pulchritudinis. De 
Genio Saeculi Ptolemaeorum. The Doctrine 
of the most ancient poets. Physical causes 
of Myths. Use of History. Invention of 
Bread. Some ancient beginnings of Greek 
Legislation. Fifteen Prolusions on the states 
of Magna Graecia and Sicily. On the Arca- 
dians more ancient than the Moon. Life of 
the most ancient Greeks. Leo the Pope and 
Attila. Epidemic Fever of Rome called 
plagues. Rise, decline and fall of Mace- 
donia. Athenian liberty as seen in Aris- 
tophanes. Natural History in prodigies. 
Disease of Proselytising. Critique or Char- 
acteristic of Symmachus; of Ausonius; of 
Ammianus Marcellinus; of six writers of 
Augustus' history (historiae Augustae?); 
of panegyric-writers &c. Alexander Severus. 

Heyne was born at Chemnitz (the birth- 
place of Puffendorf) in 1729; his father was 
the poorest of weavers. The history of the 
man was a series of misery (he at one time 
lived on pease-cods and had no bed), till 
towards the middle of it; and all along of 
most wonderful diligence. He died in 181 2. 
Little representation of his character comes 
of this Biography by Heeren his son-in-law, 
who seems to be no very deep person. Heyne 
it appears was a sharp-tempered, but good- 
hearted, peaceable, methodical and well- 



beloved man. Not great but large. I know 
only his Virgil, which certainly appeared to 
me to leave all other commentaries of the sort 
I had seen very far behind it. The Homer 
I long to see. — O that I could read it! 1 

Schlozer, Spittler, Gatterer, Martens, Wolt- 
mann, — mostly men of mould, — are com- 
memorated in the same vol. with Heyne. 
They were all Gottingen Professors; for a 
time at least, for in Germany that class of 
men is essentially wandering. Spittler's little 
book on Church history is highly praised. 
Martens wrote on trade; and collected a 
body of Fcedera from 1761 to 1819, which 
must be very useful. Schlozer was a Jour- 
nalist ; the first public whig in Germany : he 
writes of Russia, where he once lived. Gat- 
terer, a strange old virtuoso, wrote various 
chronologies, universal-history essays or com- 
pendiums; it seems on a greatly improved 
plan. He is said to have been in the habit 
of getting all the newspapers of the year col- 
lected sometime in December, and then read- 
ing them at one fell swoop. Ex uno. 

Muller is also sketched here ; not well. 

Is it not singular that so many men of note 

1 In 1828 Carlyle wrote an admirable account of Heyne, 
mainly derived from Heeren's Life of him. It appeared 
in the " Foreign Review," No. 4. See Essays, Vol. i. 



should have been produced or gathered at 
Gottingen? Mosheim — Blumenbach. These 
Germans put us to shame! We have lost 
our old honesty ; even in literature we are 
eye-servants. Go thou, and do otherwise / 

Michaud Histoire des Croisades (recom- 
mended — 4 me edit.) 

Beck's Repertorium is unspeakably stupid. 

Der liebste Bube den wir han 
Der liegt in unserm Keller, 
Er hat ein holzin Rocklein an, 
Und heisst der Muskateller. 1 

From "Ballhorn" golden A. B. C. 
Horn i. p. 88 

Erasmus belongs to that species of writers 
who with all their heart would build the good 
God a most sumptuous church ; at the same 
time however, not giving the Devil any of- 
fence; to whom accordingly they set up a 
neat little chapel close by, where you can 
offer him some touch of sacrifice by a time, 
and practice a quiet household devotion for 
him without disturbance. 

Leser wie gefall ich Dir ? 
Leser wie gefallst du mir ? 
Reader, how lik'st thou me ? 
Reader, how like I thee? 

T. von Logau. 
1 See p. (177) for translation of this quatrain. 


Der Mai. 
Dieser Monat ist ein Kuss, den der Himmel 

giebt der Erde, 
Dass sie, jetzo eine Braut, kunftig eine Mutter 

werde ' 1 The same. 

Andreas Gryph died of apoplexy in the 
Council where he was syndic at Glogau. 
Mem. Must read Mignet's French Revol. 

The Palm is said to make saws and hatchets 
blunt: hence came it to be a symbol of 

Wolff's most characteristic writing is said 
to be: Vernunftige Gedanken von Gott, der 
Welt und der Seele des Menschen. Halle. 

Picinelli Mundus Symbolicus j a book of 

Works which I could like to see written : 

1. A Biography and History of Luther; 
a picture of the great man himself, and of 
the great scenes and age he lived in. 

2. A History of English Literature ; from 
the times of Chaucer! Warton's Hist, of 
Eng. Poet, would do something in the way 

1 "May. 
' ' This month is a kiss, which Heaven gives to the Earth, 
That she, now a Bride, may in time become a Mother." 



of help, but nothing as a model. The men 
ought to be judged, not prated of; and the 
whole environment of their talent, as well 
as their talent itself, set fairly before the 

3. Failing which, I reckon one of the fin- 
est Essays of an aesthetic sort that could be 
written, were an intelligible account of 
Shakespeare. How did that wonderful 
being live and think and write ? We treat 
him commonly as a miracle, and launch out 
into vague admiration of him, out of which 
comes nothing. A miracle he was not, ex- 
cept as genius is always a miracle ; but a man 
that was born and bred as other men, and 
lived in a strange shrivelled little brick-house, 
which I have seen at Stratford on Avon ; the 
one end of which, repaired and new-bediz- 
ened was then (1825) inhabited by a — 
Butcher. Would I saw the Poet and knew 
him, and could then fully understand him ! 

Luther's Werke, herausgegeben von Walch, 

Mascov's Geschichte der Deutschen; 

Biinau's Teutsche Kaiser-und-Reichshis- 
torie ; best books of that sort (says Horn) at 
their time. 

Should see Moser : why have I not cata- 
logue ? 

Dr. Althofs Life of Burger. 


On the silk-worm : — 
Arte mea pereo, tumulum mihi fabricor ipse : 
Fila mei fati duco, necemque neo. 1 

Miller (of Gottingen's ?) Siegwart the be- 
ginning of the sentimental period. 

The two Stolbergs — F. Leopold became 
a Catholic. Jung (Stilling's) Selbstbiogra- 
phie. Matt. Claudius; the Wandsbecker 
Bote. — Lichtenberg's writings — 

Johann Christian Brandes, Autobiography; 
said to be interesting. 

Die Tugend ist das hochste Gut, 
Das Laster Weh dem Menschen thut. 2 
Puppenspieler Jahrm arktfest. 

i. Weisheit auf der Strasse, a Book of 
Proverbs, relating many of them to the time 
of the Reformation. 

2. Moser, Osnabricckische Geschichtej a very 
good history. Fantasiefistucke, by the same. 

3. Raumer, Geschichte der Hohenstauffen ; 
said to be very good. 

4. Ritter a writer on statistics, of great 
merit; professor at Berlin. 

These four recommended by Mr. Aitken. 

1 " By my own art I die, for myself I make my tomb ; 
I spin the thread of my own fate, and weave my own 

2 " Virtue is the highest good, 
While Vice does harm to man." 



With regard to the right and left bank of 
a river, you keep your face down the stream. 

Genus hominum, quod in civitate nostra 
semper et retinebitur et vetabitur. — Tacitus. 1 

A countryman [Bauer) one morning 
knocked at Gellert's door, and asked if " he 
was the man that wrote those fine Fables ? " 
Being answered in the affirmative, the Bauer 
added that " here was a cartload of wood 
which he had brought to warm him thro' 
winter, as an acknowledgement for the pleas- 
ure he (the B.) had got from those writings; " 
and so saying, he tumbled up his cargo of 
billets, and with best compliments, took his 
leave. This was worth a dozen Reviews. 

Quicunque solitudine delectatur aut fera 
aut deus est. 2 

1 Mathematici ' ' genus hominum . . . quod in civitate 
nostra et vetabitur semper, et retinebitur." Hist. i. 22. 
" Astrologers, a class of men which will always be pro- 
hibited in our city and always maintained." 

2 Bacon begins his essay "Of Friendship" with the 
words : "It had been hard for him that spake it to have 
put more truth and untruth together in few words, than 
in that speech, Whosoever is delighted in solitude is either 
a wild beast or a god." The adages which follow are cited 
in the same essay. Bacon's reference was undoubtedly 
to the well-known passage in Aristotle, Politics, i. 2, 
which is to the effect that "he who is unable to live in 



Magna civitas, magna solitude 1 
Cor ne edito (eat not your heart), Pythag. 
(These are from Bacon.) 

Stag-heads in Fontainebleau under which 
stood inscribed ; " Louis so-and-so did me 
the honour to shoot me." Richter, Levana. 

Turba medicorum perdidit Caesarem. 2 

Hadrian's epitaph. 

Anton, Geschichte der Deutsche Nation. 
Schmidt's " 

Levesque, Moralistes anciens. 
(Somebody's) " " Francais. 
Suard, Melanges Litteraires. 
Duval, Memoires surle royaume de Naples. 
Varillas, Histoire secrete de la Maison de 

Tasso's Essay Del Poema Eroico. 3 

society, or who has no need because he is sufficient for 
himself, must be either a beast or a god," — but Bacon 
gives the words a false turn, and then proceeds to argue, 
on the basis of his own error, against the position which 
he ascribes to Aristotle. Carlyle had obviously been 
reading the essay in the Latin translation published by 
Dr. Rawley in 1638. 
1 " A great town is a great solitude." 

2 " The crowd of doctors killed Caesar." 

3 In a letter to his brother John, Oct. 25, 1827, Car- 
lyle wrote : " Meanwhile I am beginning (purpose seri- 
ously beginning to-morrow) an article on Zacharias 
Werner ... I design afterwards, if Jeffrey is willing, to 



Ultimate object of the Poet is to profit 
(prodesse as superordma.te to delectare). p. 
350. — very clear and logical, giovar dilet- 

(An Historian must write (so to speak) in 
lines ; but every event is a superficies / nay 
if we search out its causes, a solid : hence a 
primary and almost incurable defect in the 
art of Narration; which only the very best 
can so much as approximately remedy. — 
N. B. I understand this myself. I have known 
it for years; and written it now, with the 
purpose perhaps of writing it at large else- 
where.) 1 

Curious (p. 367) division of Theology. 
The mistico much the same as Vernunft? 2 

Instar omnium Plato, said Antimachus 

Clarius, when only this one vote went in his 

favour; " Plato is worth them all." 3 

give a Discourse on Tasso." Letters, i. 90. The arti- 
cle on Werner was written, and is to be found in Car- 
lyle's Essays ; the proposed discourse on Tasso seems 
not to have been accomplished. 

IThis purpose was fulfilled in his paper "On His- 
tory" published in Fraser's Magazine, in 1830. See 
Essays, ii. 258. 

2 For the definition of Vernunft "Reason," as used 
by the Kantists, and its relation to Mysticism, see " State 
of German Literature" (1827), Essays, i. 69. 

3 — " dixisse Antimachum, Clarium poetam, ferunt, qui 
quum convocatis auditoribus legeret eis magnum illud, 
quod novistis, volumen suum, et eum legentem omnes, 
praeter Platonem, reliquissent, ' Legam ' inquit ' nihilo 
minus; Plato enim mihi unus instar est omnium mil- 
Hum.' " Cicero, Brutus, 51. 



Convien cWuom poggt ; man should ascend. 

I have gone over (not regularly read) the 
Essay Del Poema Eroico. Must not say that 
I have derived any benefit from it generally ; 
or even specially any great insight into the 
individuality of Tasso himself. It is unspeak- 
ably diffuse, and appeals to no principles of a 
scientific sort; the main source of his light 
being Aristotle and the practice of ancient 
poets. One gathers only that he was a seri- 
ous man, and had high views of the dignity 
and moment of Epic poetry; tho' how from 
so complicated and generally so barren a 
system of rules he modulated so harmonious 
a whole as the Gerusalemme seems nowise 
clear. — On the whole I have not strength to 
study Tasso at present, nor even to express 
what I have studied concerning him. 

Tasso was a mystic, as we should call him : 
Must not every true poet be so ? That is to- 
say, must he not have a sense of the Invisible 
Existences of Nature, and be enabled as it 
were to read the symbols of these in the vis- 
ible ? Can any man delineate with life the 
figure even of a Trinculo or Caliban other- 
wise ? For is not the poorest nature a mys- 
tery ; the most grovelling street-porter, the 
most arid Kanzlerverwandte a type in some 
obscurer sense and an emanation from the 
Land of wonders ? Is he not an individual; 
and who shall explain all the significance of 



that one word ? — Not one of Scott's Fair- 
services or Deanses &c. is alive. As far as prose 
could go, he has gone ; and we have fair out- 
sides ; but within all is rather hollow, nicht 
wahr ? — Alas! I do not see into this, and 
must talk rather falsely of it, or " altogether 
hold my peace," which perhaps were better. — 
Jan y 8 th 1828.— 

La Bruyere I have found, for the second 
time, strive as I might, exceedingly shallow. 
" He has point and brilliancy ; but so has a 
brass pin." — Yet I do not know the French : 
what do I know ? — 

The courtesies of polished life too often 
amount to little more than this: "Sir, you 
and I care not two brass farthings the one 
for the other, we have and can have no 
friendship for each other or for aught else in 
nature ; nevertheless let us enact it, if we can- 
not practise it ; do you tell so many lies, and 
I shall tell so many, and depend on it the 
result will be of great service to both. For 
is not this December weather very cold? 
And tho' our grates are full of ice, yet if you 
keep a picture of fire before yours, and I 
another before mine, will not this be next to 
a real coal-and-wood affair ? 

Goethe has been called ill-bred, a low and 
vulgar man by certain British Critics. He is 



of all past and present writers the farthest 
from this. Except himself, I might say, there 
is no man of books known to me, who can 
delineate a Gentleman, or even so much as 
conceive him. Scott goes as far as the Up- 
holsterer and Gentleman-Usher go; but little 
farther : his highest gentleman (at all events) 
might be a writer to the Signet : Bonaparte 
himself becomes a sort of Parliamenteering, 
game-preserving, Road-commissioning Coun- 
try-Squire in his hands. Put together a Gen- 
tleman as e.g. Burns can put together a 
Peasant ! They give us a sort of shell of one ; 
but the kernel is not there. 

What is the unhappiest quality in man ? 
For his moral worth, malignity (excess of em- 
ulation corrupted)) for his civic prosperity, 
irresolution. How long halt ye between two 
opinions ? 

To be read : 

Mill's History of Chivalry. 
" " Crusades. 
i( Theodore Ducas ? 
Sharon Turner's Anglo-Saxons. 
" " England. 

" Henry VIII. 
Works of Ritson (never seen by me) 
Percy's Relicks (almost forgotten) 
Ellis I have read and partly esteemed. 


What of all these Memoirs by Lucy Aikin, 
Miss Benger, and Mrs. Thomson ? I will 
take down their names. 

Lucy A's Queen Elizabeth. 

" " King James I. 
Miss B's Queen of Bohemia (Eliz. Stuart) 
" " Mary Q. of Scots 
" " Anne Boleyn. 
" « Henri IV. [II. ?] 
" " Mrs. Hamilton. 
" " Mr. Tobin. 
Mrs. TVs Henry VIII. 

The Saxon Chronicle (translated) by J. 

Coxe's Memoirs of Duke Marlborough. 
" " " Sir R. Walpole. 

Goethe (Dichtung und Wahrheit II. 14) 
asserts that the sublime is natural to all young 
persons and peoples ; but that day-light (of 
reason) destroys it, unless it can unite itself 
with the Beautiful, in which case it remains 
indestructible. — A fine obs. 

p. 39. Grotius said he read Terence other- 
wise than Boys do. " Happy limitedness of 
youth ! nay of men in general, that at all mo- 
ments of their existence they can look upon 
themselves as complete; and ask neither for 
the True nor the False, the High nor the 
Deep, but simply what is suitable to them." 



— Alles was daher von mir bekannt ge- 
worden sind nur Bruchstiicke einer grossen 
Confession, welche vollstandig zu machen 
dieses Buchlein ein gewagter Versuch ist. 
p. 109. — x 

Banier's Mythology. 

Finished a Paper on Burns. September 
16, 1828; at this Devil's Den, Craigenput- 

Ersch his Handbuch der deutschen Liter- 
atur seit der Mitte des i8 ten Jahrh. bis auf die 
neueste Zeit. 2 Bde. Amsterdam & Leip- 
zig. 1812-14. There has been a second and 
better Edition. 

1 Das Kind mit dem Bade ausgeschiittet ! ' 
— Killed instead of curing ? [" Fling out not 
the dirty water only but y r washed child/" 
A very pretty proverb.] 2 

Der Deutsche Improvisator ? Two Books 
of him published at Gera. The man Goethe 
speaks of? 

F. SchlegePs Philosophy of Life. Literat. 
Zeit. Marz, 462. rather sensible. 

1 " All my pieces which have thus become known are 
only fragments of a great confession which this little 
book is a venturesome attempt to make complete." 

2 " The Germans say, You must empty out the bath- 
ing-tub, but not the baby along with it." ' Nigger Ques- 
tion,' 1849. Essays, vii. 97. 

9 129 


Camillo Ugoni Hist, of Italian Literature 
— goodish? 175-1800 is its Spielraum. 1 

Corniani has also written a Secoli della Let. 
It. in nine volumes. 

Giuseppe Tartini Italian Fiddler dreamed 
one night that he had made a paction with 
the Devil, who ' did, nay surpassed ' all his 
bidding. In particular he (the Devil) played 
(by request) such a Sonata as for beauty was 
never played before; the ravishments of which 
indeed woke poor Tartini, who clutching his 
fiddle tried at least to retain some tones of 
this Devil's Sonata; but almost in vain, so 
unearthly was it. However he did what he 
could j and his best is still called the Devil's 
Sonata. Beppo died at Padua 1770. 

Boscovich died mad! 1787. 

Passeroni cooked for himself — in Milan; 
an old woman made his bed : he himself was 
to be seen with cap and apron. He wrote a 
Poem [//] Cicerone in six volumes, containing 
11,047 stanzas (octave). This great and very 
good humoured Author died — perhaps about 

Baretti was born at Turin (1719). Would 
not be an Architect, and so ran off from home 
at the age of 16. London (1757) — from 
Venice. — He travelled thro' Spain and Por- 
tugal home (1760); but came back to Lon- 

l "Area." 


don, where he died (1789). Three fellows, 
(robbers seemingly) attacked him on the 
street (of L.) and he killed one of them with 
a silver knife (!) Burke, Reynolds, Johnson, 
Fitzherbert (quotha) got him off. His works 

Frusta Litteraria (Literary Scourge). 

The Italians. 

Travels. Discorso on Shakesp. 

&c. partly in Italian, partly in English. He 
is a rugged hard keen man — as his Diet, it- 
self shows. 1 

Galiani, a Neapolitan Abb6 — See Grimm. 

Gries has translated Tasso, Ariosto, Cal- 
deron — the latter as I partly know well. 

Palestrina, Scarlatti. Italian (earliest) 

Handel, Bach, Hasse. 

Darstellungen aus der Geschichte der Mu- 
sik, by Krause — Gottingen. 

Millot, Histoire Litt6raire des Trouba- 

Raynouard, Choix des Poesies des Tr. 

Geschichte der Jungfrau von Orleans by 
Fouque" — 1826. Berlin, 2 vol. 

1 Boswell has conferred immortality on Baretti, by the 
frequent mention of him in his Life of Johnson. 



Et sibi res non se rebus submittere tentat. 

(Hor.) 1 
Piece a iiroir ; a Play of detached scenes. 

Has the mind its cycles and seasons like Na- 
ture, varying from the fermentation oiwerden 2 
to the clearness of seyny 3 and this again and 
again ; so that the history of a man is like the 
history of the world he lives in ? In my own 
case, I have traced two or three such vicissi- 
tudes : at present if I mistake not, there is 
some such thing at hand for me. Feb y 1829. 

Above all things, I should like to know 
England, the essence of social life in this 
same little Island of ours. But how ? No 
one that I speak to can throw light on it; 
not he that has worked and lived in the 
midst of it for half a century. The blind 
following the blind! Yet each cries out: 
What a glorious sunshine we have ! The 
1 old Literature ' only half contents me : it is 
ore and not metal. I have not even a history 
of the country, half precise enough. With 
Scotland, it is little better. To me there is 

1 The verse in Horace runs : 

Et mihi res, non me rebus, subjungere conor. 

Epist., i. i. 19. 
" I strive to master things, not let them master me." 
Compare Emerson's 

" Things are in the saddle, and ride mankind." 

2 " Becoming." 3 " Being." 



nothing poetical in Scotland, but its Religion. 
Perhaps because I know nothing else so well. 
England with its old Chivalry, Art and 
' creature comfort ' looks beautiful, but only 
as a cloud-country, the distinctive features 
of which are all melted into one gay sunny 
mass of hues. After all, we are a world 
'within ourselves'; a 'self-contained house.' 

The English have never had an Artist, ex- 
cept in Poetry ; no Musician, no Painter; Pur- 
cell (was he a native? 1 ) and Hogarth are not 
exceptions, or only such as confirm the rule. 

He who would understand England must 
understand her Church, for that is half of the 
whole matter. Am I not conscious of a 
prejudice on that side ? Does not the very 
sight of a shovel-hat in some degree indis- 
pose me to the wearer thereof? shut up my 
heart against him ? This must be looked in- 
to : without love there is no knowledge. 2 

Do I not also partly despise partly hate 
the Aristocracy of Scotland ? I fear, I do, 
tho' under cover. This too should be rem- 
edied. — On the whole, I know little of the 
Scottish Gentleman ; and more than enough 

1 Purcell was born in Westminster. 

2 This thought is more fully written out in ' Biography ' 
(1832). Essays, iv. 62. 



of the Scottish Gigman. — All are not mere 
rent- gatherers and game-preservers. 

Have the Scottish Gentry lost their na- 
tional character of late years, and become 
mere danglers in the train of the wealthier 
English ? Scott has seen certain characters 
among them ; of which I hitherto have not 
heard of any existing specimen. 

Is the true Scotchman the Peasant and Yeo- 
an ; chiefly the former ? 

Shall we actually go and ride thro' England 
to see it ? Mail-coaches are a mere mockery. 

A national character, that is, the descrip- 
tion of one, tends to realize itself, as some pro- 
phecies have produced their own fulfilment. 
Tell a man that he is brave, and you help 
him to become so. The ' national charac- 
ter ' hangs like a pattern in every head ; each 
sensibly or insensibly shapes himself thereby, 
and feels pleased when he can in any meas- 
ure realize it. 

Is the characteristic strength of England 
its Love of Justice, its deep-seated, univer- 
sally-active sense of Fair Play? — On many 
points it seems to be a very stupid people; 



but seldom a hide-bound, bigoted, altogether 
unmanageable and unaddressable people. 

The Scotch have more enthusiasm and 
more consideration; that is, at once, more 
sail and ballast : they seem to have a deeper 
and richer character as a nation. — The old 
Scottish music, our Songs &c., are a highly- 
distinctive feature. 

Must see Southey's Book of the Church & 
Tytler's History of Scotland. Also Sir W. 
Scott's Tales of a Grandfather. 

Read Novalis Schriften for the second time 
some weeks ago, and wrote a Review of them. 
A strange, mystic, unfathomable Book ; but 
full of matter for most earnest meditation. 
What is to become (next) of the world and 
the sciences thereof? Rather, what is to be- 
come of thee and thy science ? Thou longest 
to act among thy fellow men, and canst (yet) 
scarcely breathe among them. 

Friedrich Schlegel dead at Dresden on 
the 9 th of January! — Poor Schlegel what 
toilsome seeking was thine: thou knowest 
now whether thou hadst found — or thou 
carest not for knowing ! 

What am I to say of Voltaire ? (His name 


has stood at the top of a sheet for three days, 
and no other word !) Writing is a dreadful 
Labour; yet not so dreadful as Idleness. 

Every living man is a visible mystery : he 
walks between two Eternities and two Infini- 
tudes (said already I) 1 — Were we not blind as 
moles we should value our Humanity at x, 
and our Rank, Influence &c. (the trappings 
of our Humanity), at o. Say, I am a man; 
and you say all : whether King or Tinker is 
a mere appendix. — (" very true, Mr. Carlyle, 
but then " — we must believe Truth and prac- 
tise Error ?)— 2 

— Pray that your eyes be opened, that you 
may see what is before them ! The whole world 
is built as it were, on Light and Glory; only 
that our spiritual eye must discern it : to the 
bodily eye Self is as a perpetual blinder, and 
we see nothing but darkness and contradic- 

Luther, says Melanchthon, would often, tho' 
in robust health, go about ioxfour days eating 
and drinking — nothing! — "Vidi continuis 
quatuor diebus, cum quidem recte valeret, 

1 " In any point of Space, in any section of Time, let 
there be a living man ; and there is an infinitude above 
him and beneath him, and an Eternity encompasses him 
on this hand and on that." ' State of German Literature,' 
Essays, i, 73. 

2 In this paragraph lies the germ of Sartor Resartus. 

1 36 


prorsus nihil edentem aut bibentem. Vidi 
saepe alias multis diebus quotidie exiguo pane 
et halece contentum esse" — content for many 
days with a little piece of bread and herring. 
O tempora ! O mores ! 

Luther's last words : 

" ' Mein himmlischer Vater, ewiger barm- 
herziger Gott, du hast mir deinen lieben Sohn, 
unsern Herrn Jhesum Christum offenbaret; 
den hab ich geleret, den hab ich bekandt, 
den liebe ich und den ehre ich fur meinen 
lieben Heiland und Erloser, welchen die 
Gottlosen verfolgen, schenden und schelten. 
Nim meine Seele zu dir.' Then he repeated 
thrice : ' In manus tuas commendo Spiritum 
meum; redemisti me, Deus veritatis. Also 
hat Gott die Welt geliebet ' x &c. repeating these 
prayers several times, he was called away by 
God into his eternal school, and eternal bless- 
edness; where he enjoys the presence of the 
Father, Son, Holy Ghost; of all the Prophets 
and Apostles. Ah! the chariot and chari- 

l"My heavenly Father, eternal and merciful God, 
Thou hast revealed to me thy dear Son, whom I have 
followed and known, and whom I love and honor as my 
beloved Saviour and Redeemer, whom the godless per- 
secute, revile and abuse. Take Thou my soul to Thy- 

" Into thine hand I commit my spirit; Thou hast re- 
deemed me, O Lord God of truth." (Psalm xxxi. 5.) 

" God so loved the world." (John hi. 16.) 



oteer of Israel is departed; he who guided 
the church in this last old age of the world." 
— Melanchthonis (p. 33.) de vita Martini Lu- 
theri Narratio — a very brief, meagre, and 
unsatisfactory performance. I must try to 
see Seckendorf Historia Luth. (a large Latin 
book, but said to be authentic). — 

Keil's Leben der Aeltern Luther's. 

KeiFs M. Luther's merkw. Lebensum- 

" Ich bin eines Bauern Sohn," says Luther. 
" Mein Vater, Grossvater, Ahnherr sind rechte 
Bauern gewest. Darnach ist mein Vater gen 
Mansfeld gezogen, und daselbst ein Berghauer 
geworden." 1 Luther used to say, in miner 
fashion, to the last: wohlauf 1 instead of 
wohlan / 

Mathesii Histor. Luth. (ed. 1576). 

Motschmanus in his Erfordia literata (Lit- 
erary Erfurt) has diligently narrated Luther's 
proceedings while in that town — as student 
and monk. 

Luther was a monk for fifteen years : " Ein 
frommer Munch bin ich gewesen, und habe 
so theure meinen Orden gehalten dass ich 
sagen darf, ist jemahls ein Munch gen Him- 
mel gekommen durch Miincherey, so wollte 

l " I am a peasant's son. My father, grandfather, and 
forefather were mere peasants. After a time my father 
went to Mansfeld, and there became a miner." 



ich auch hinein gekommen seyn. Dies wer- 
den mir zeugen alle meine Kloster-Gesellen de 
mich gekennet haben. Denn ich hatte mich, 
wo es langer gewahret hatte, zu Tode gemar- 
tert mit Wachen, Beten, Lesen und anderer 
Arbeit." 1 

Luther was born Nov. io*. 11 1483; he died 
Feb. 18* 1546 — aged 63: his disease was 
Cardiaca (the last fit, apparently some sort of 

Tetzel's business came on 15 17 — when L. 
was 34 years old. Worms Diet 38. 

Luther's character appears to me the most 
worth discussing of all modern men's. He 
is, to say it in a word, a great man in every 
sense; has the soul at once of a Conqueror 
and a Poet. His attachment to Music is to 
me a very interesting circumstance: it was 
the channel for many of his finest emotions ; 
for which words, even words of prayer, were 
but an ineffectual exponent. Is it true that 
he did leave Wittenberg for Worms 'with 
nothing but his Bible and his Flute ' ? There 
is no scene in European History so splendid 

1 " I was a pious Monk, and held my Rule so dear that 
I venture to say that if ever a monk got to Heaven 
through monkery, I ought to have got there. All my 
cloister companions who have known me will testify this 
of me. For I should have tormented myself to death, 
if it had lasted much longer, with vigils, prayers, read- 
ings, and other labor." 



and significant. — I have long had a sort of 
notion to write some life or characteristic of 
Luther. A picture of the public Thought in 
those days, and of this strong lofty mind over- 
turning and new-moulding it, would be a fine 
affair in many senses. It would require im- 
mense research. — Alas ! alas ! — When are 
we to have another Luther ? Such men are 
needed from century to century : there seldom 
has been more need of one than now. 

Wrote a Paper on Voltaire for the Foreign 
Review (sometime in March & April 1829). 
It appears to have given some (very slight) 
satisfaction : pieces of it breathe afar off the 
right spirit of composition. When shall I 
attain to write wholly in that spirit ? 

Paper on Novalis for F. R. just published ; 
written last January amid the frosts. Gener- 
ally poor. Novalis is an Anti-Mechanist; 
a deep man; the most perfect of modern 
spirit-seers. I thank him for somewhat. 

Also just finished an Article on the Signs 
of the Times, for the Edf Review; as Jeffrey's 
last speech. 1 Bad in general ; but the best I 
could make it under such incubus influences. 

1 Jeffrey was on the point of giving up the editorship 
of the Edinburgh Review. 



(August 5. To see Jeffrey at Dumfries the 
day after to-morrow). 

Every age appears surprising and full of 
vicissitudes to those that live therein ; as in- 
deed it is and must be: vicissitudes from 
Nothingness to Existence ; and from the tu- 
multuous wonders of Existence forward to the 
still wonders of Death. 

Politics are not our Life (which is the prac- 
tice and contemplation of Goodness), but 
only the house wherein that Life is led. Sad 
duty that lies on us to parget and continually 
repair our houses: saddest of all when it 
becomes our sole duty. 

An Institution (a Law of any kind) may 
become a deserted edifice; the walls stand- 
ing, no life going on within, but that of bats, 
owls and unclean creatures. It will then be 
pulled down if it stand interrupting any thor- 
oughfare ; if it do not so stand, people may 
leave it alone till a grove of .natural wood 
grow round it, and no eye but that of the ad- 
venturous antiquarian may know of its exist- 
ence, such a tangle of brush is to be struggled 
thro' before it can be come at and viewed. 

All Language but that concerning sensual 


objects is or has been figurative. 1 Prodigious 
influence of metaphors ! Never saw into it 
till lately. A truly useful and philosophical 
work would be a good Essay on Metaphors. 
Some day I will write one ! 

Begin to think more seriously of discussing 
Martin Luther. The only Inspiration I 
know of is that of Genius : it was, is, and 
will always be of a divine character. 

Wonderful Universe ! Were our eyes but 
opened, what a ' secret' were it that we 
daily see and handle, without heed ! 

Understanding is to Reason as the talent 
of a Beaver (which can build houses, and uses 
its tail for a trowel) to the genius of a Prophet 
and Poet. Reason is all but extinct in this 
age : it can never be altogether extinguished. 2 

Books : 
Must see Thomas a Kempis. 

1 " Examine Language ; what, if you except some few 
primitive elements (of natural sound), what is it all but 
Metaphors, recognized as such, or no longer recog- 
nized: still fluid and florid, or now solid-grown and 
colourless ? " Sartor Resartus, Book i. ch. xi. 

Sartor itself may be regarded as the fulfilment of the 
intention one day to write ' a good Essay on Metaphors. ' 

2 Cf. "State of German Literature." (1827.) Essays, 
i. 86. 



Webster's Dramatic Works. 
Marston's do. (Never heard of him.) 
Life of Sir T. More. 

Thorns' Collection of Ancient English 
(One Nicholas Harris Nicolas seems to be 
a determined English Antiquarian.) 

(These Books are all in Pickering's List.) 

What a strange thing is that Quarterly- 
Review ! How insular, how lawn-sleeved ! 
What will the world come to ? 

Das Seligseyn ist um eine Ewigkeit alter 
als das Verdammtseyn. 1 — Jean Paul. 

" The mixture of those things by speech 
which by nature are divided is the mother of 
all error." — Hooker, p. 61. — 

Error of Political Economists about im- 
proving waste lands as compared with manu- 
facturing : the manufacture is worn and done 
(the machine itself dies) ; the improved land 
remains an addition to the Earth forever. 
What is the amount of this error ? I see not ; 
but reckon it something considerable. 

Is it true that of all quacks that ever quacked 
(boasting themselves to be somebody) in any 

l " Salvation is by an Eternity older than Damnation." 


age of the world, the Political Economists of 
this age are, for their intrinsic size, the loudest ? 
Mercy on us what a quack-quacking; and their 
egg (even if not a wind one) is of value simply 
one half-penny ! — 

Their whole Philosophy (!) is an Arithmeti- 
cal Computation — performed in words ; re- 
quires therefore the intellect not of Socrates 
or Shakespear but of Cocker or Dil worth. 
Even if it were right ! which it scarcely ever 
is, for they miss this or the other item, do as 
they will, and must return to practice and 
take the low posteriori road after all. 

The question of money-making, even of 
National Money-making, is not a high but a 
low one : as they treat it, among the lowest. 
Could they tell us how wealth is and should be 
distributed, it were something; but they do 
not attempt it. Political Philosophy ! Pol. 
Ph. should be a scientific revelation of the 
whole secret mechanism whereby men cohere 
together in society; should tell us what is 
meant by "country" {patria), by what causes 
men are happy, moral, religious, or the con- 
trary : instead of all which, it tells us how 
"flannel jackets" are exchanged for "pork 
hams," and speak much about the "land last 
taken into cultivation." They are the hod- 
men of the intellectual edifice, who have got 
upon the wall, and will insist on building, as 
if they were masons. 



The Utilitarians are the " crowning mercy " 
of this age : the summit (now first appearing 
to view) of a mass of tendencies which stretch 
downwards and spread sidewards over the 
whole intellect and moral of the time. By 
and by, the clouds will disperse, and we shall 
see it all, in dead nakedness and brutishness ; 
and Utilitaria will pass away with a great 
noise. You think not ? — Can the Reason of 
man be trodden under foot forever by his 
sense; can the Brute in us prevail forever 
over the angel ! — x 

The Devil has his Elect. 2 

Pero digan lo que quisieren (los historia- 
dores) que desnudo naci, desnudo me hallo, 
ni pierdo ni gano, aunque por verme puesto 
in libros y andar por ese mundo de mano en 
mano, no se me da un higo que digan de 
mi todo lo que quisieren. — says Sancho — 
Quixote 4. 117. 3 

1 Compare with this passage, Sartor Resartus , Book iii. 
ch. vi. 

I " Let us offer sweet incense to the Devil, and live at 
ease on the fat things he has provided for his Elect." 
Sartor Resartus, Book ii. ch. vii. 

3 " But let them [the historians] say what they will, for 
naked was I born, naked I am, I neither lose nor gain, 
and though I find myself put into books, and passing 
from hand to hand through the world, I care not a fig, 
let them say of me what they will." Don Quixote, Part 
ii, ch. 8. 

10 145 


What is the Censura Literaria ? 
Granger's Biographical History of England. 

"The wishers and woulders were never 
good householders." — Greene (in Drake 1 ). 
" Hell is paved with good resolutions." 

This is the only way to make a woman 

dum : 
To sit and smile and laugh her out and 

not a word but mum. 

L[eonard] Wright (from D[rake].) 2 

Capel LoffVs Aphorisms of Shakespeare. 
Beloe's Anecdotes of Literature (and) 
Scarce Books. 

Oldys' British Librarian. 

Brady's Clavis Calendaria. 

Brand (or Bourne's) Popular Antiquities. 

Burnett's Specim. Eng. Prose writers. 

Orford's Royal & Noble Authors. 

Die Moncherei oder geschichtliche Dar- 

1 " Drake " refers to the well-known " Shakespeare and 
his Times," by Nathan Drake, London, 1817. 2 vols., 
4to. The saying here cited (vol. i, p. 490) is from 
Greene's tract, entitled " Never Too Late," 1590. 
Greene says " thinking this old sentence to be true The 
wishes, etc." He writes it as prose, but it must originally 
have been a couplet, "woulders" written and pro- 
nounced after the 16th century fashion " wolders, " rhym- 
ing with "holders." 

2 Id., p. 513. The couplet is from Wright's " Display 
of Dutie," 1589. 



stellung des Klosterwelt (Stuttgard, 1820, 
3 Bde.) 

See also Hermes no. 15. for a Review of it. 

Dr. Berkenhout (the English son of a 
Dutch Leeds merchant) has published a 4 to 
vol. which treats of the Lit. Hist, of Eng- 
land, prior to Elizabeth; with what merit I 
know not. 

It is the sharpest (black) Frost I have seen 
for some years. 14? 1 Jan? 1830. — I am quite 
idle. Eheu ! 

My worthy Uncle " Sandy " is dead, and 
to be buried to-morrow " The heaviest-laden 
wayfarer at length lays down his load." Un- 
cle Sandy's widow survived him but a week ; 
their eldest son lay sick of fever, and at the 
time insensible. 1 

The week following died my Aunt Mary 
(Stewart), after eight years of ill health and 
weary dreary Death-in-Life. 

March I am occupied writing a 

(perhaps 1st.) History of German Litera- 
ture (save the mark!) which 
will nowise fashion itself into any shape 
in my hands. 2 Few men have attempted a 

1 [Now (1866) J as Aitken, Husband of his cousin, my 
sister Jean.] 

2 In October, 1829, the proposal had come to Carlyle, 
already known, by his Life of Sqhiller and by articles in 



compilation under such circumstances: no 
Books, continual disappointments from Book- 
agents, etc., etc. But what boots complain- 
ing? Bear a hand, and let us do our best; 
the strongest can do no better. 

Does it seem hard to thee that thou 
shouldst toil, in dullness, sickness, isolation ? 
Whose lot is not even this ? Toil, then, et 

Either I am degenerating into a caput 
moriuum, and shall never think another rea- 
sonable thought; or some new and deeper 
view of the world is about to arise in me. 
Pray Heaven, the latter ! It is dreadful to 
live without vision: where there is no light 
the people perish. — 

With considerable sincerity I can pray at 
this moment : Grant me, O Father, enough 
of wisdom to live well ; prosperity to live 
happily (easily) grant me or not, as Thou 

the Foreign and Foreign Quarterly Review, to be compe- 
tent for the task, to write a History of German Litera- 
ture, for publication in the series of volumes of the 
Cabinet Cyclopcedia. His plan for it is set forth at length 
in a letter to Goethe of May 23, 1830. The first volume 
was then complete. But on August 31, he writes that 
the plan had fallen through, after he had brought down 
the narrative, in the space of a volume and a half, to the 
Reformation. See Correspondence between Goethe and 
Carlyle, pp. 159, 187, 207. The book was never com- 
pleted. Some parts were made into independent articles 
and printed in the Reviews ; of these were the essays on 
" The Nibelungen Lied," and on " Early German Liter- 
ature," which are now to be found in Carlyle's Essays. 



seest best. — A poor faint prayer, as such, yet 
surely a kind of wish ; as indeed it has gen- 
erally been with me : and now a kind of 
comfort to feel it still in my otherwise too 
withered heart. — 

I am a ' dismembered limb • ; and feel it 
again too deeply. 1 Was I ever other? Stand 
to it tightly, man; and do thy utmost. Thou 
hast little or no hold on the world; promo- 
tion will never reach thee; nor true fellow- 
ship with any active body of men : but hast 
thou not still a hold on Thyself? Ja, beym 
Himmel! — 

Religion, as Novalis hints, is a, social 
thing. Without a Church there can be lit- 
tle or no Religion. The action of mind on 
mind is mystical, infinite ; Religion, worship 
can hardly (perhaps not at all) support itself 
without this aid. The derivation of Schwdr- 
merey indicates some notion of this in the 
Germans. To schwdrmen (to be enthusias- 
tic) means, says Coleridge, to swarm, to 
crowd together, and excite one another. — 

What is the English of all quarrels that 
have been are or can be between man and 
man ? Simply this : Sir you are taking more 

l " For thee the Family of Man has no use ; it rejects 
thee ; thou art wholly as a dissevered limb ; so be it ; 
perhaps it is better so ! " 

Sartor Resartus, Book ii. ch. viii. 



than your share of Pleasure in this world, 
something from my share ; and by the gods, 
you shall not; nay I will fight you rather. 
Alas ! and the whole lot to be divided is 
such a beggarly account of empty boxes; 
truly a 'feast of shells,' not eggs, for the 
yolks have all been blown out of them ! Not 
enough to fill half a stomach, and the whole 
human species famishing to be at them ! Bet- 
ter we should say to our Brother : Take it, 
poor fellow, take that larger share, which I 
reckon mine, and which thou so wantest : 
take it with a blessing : would to Heaven I 
had but enough for thee! 1 — This is the 
Moral of the Christian Religion : how easy 
to write, how hard to practice ! (Suggested 
itself one wet evening, on the Trailtrow 
moss, 2 as I came from Annan, in 1825 ; or 
perhaps I only mentioned it to Jack then, 
as a thing I had lately seen. — I love to be 

I have now almost done with the Ger- 
mans. Having seized their opinions, I must 
turn me to inquire how true are they ? That 
truth is in them, no lover of Truth will 
doubt : but how much ? And after all, one 
needs an intellectual Scheme (or ground plan 

l The foregoing paragraph appears, with some verbal 
changes, in Sartor Resartus, Book ii. ch. ix. 
Near Ecclefechan. A. C. 



of the Universe) drawn with one's own in- 
struments. — 

I think I have got rid of Materialism: 
Matter no longer seems to me so ancient, 
so unsubduable, so certain and palpable as 
Mind. / am Mind : whether matter or not 
I know not — and care not. — Mighty glimpses 
into the spiritual Universe I have sometimes 
had (about the true nature of Religion, the pos- 
sibility, after all, of ' supernatural' (really natu- 
ral) influences &c. &c.) : would they could but 
stay with me, and ripen into a perfect view ! 

— Miracle? What is a Miracle? 1 Can 
there be a thing more miraculous than any 
other thing ? I myself am a standing won- 
der. It is 'the inspiration of the Almighty 
that giveth us understanding.' — 

What is Poetry? Do I really love Po- 
etry ? I sometimes fancy almost, not. The 
jingle of maudlin persons, with their mere 
(even genuine) ' sensibility ' is unspeakably 
fatiguing to me. My greatly most delightful 
reading is, where some Goethe musically 
teaches me. Nay, any fact, relating especi- 
ally to man, is still valuable and pleasing. — 

My Memory, which was one of the best, 
has failed sadly of late years, (principally the 
last two) : yet not so much by defect in the 
faculty, I should say, as by want of earnest- 

1 Cf. Sartor Resartus, Book iii. ch. viii. " What spe- 
cially is a' Miracle ? " 




ness in using it. I attend to few things as I 
was wont : few things have any interest for 
me; I live in a sort of waking dream. 

Doubtful it is in the highest degree, whether 
ever I shall make men hear my voice to any 
purpose or not. Certain only that I shall be 
a failure if I do not, and unhappy: nay un- 
happy enough (that is with suffering enough) 
even if I do. My own talent I cannot in the 
remotest attempt at estimating. Something su- 
perior often does seem to be in me, and hitherto 
the world has been very kind ; but many things 
inferior also; so that I can strike no balance. 
— Hang it, try ; and leave this Grubeln / % 

What we have done is the only mirror that 
can show us what we are. 

One great desideratum in every society is 
a man to hold his peace. 

O Time, how thou fliest, 
False heart, how thou liest ; 
Leave chattering and fretting, 
Betake thee to doing and getting ! 

I must have a whiff of tobacco, first ! God 
help me ! 

Wer vom treuen stirbt, dem soil man mit 
Furtzen zum Grab lauten (Epist. obs. viror. 
l " Speculating." 


449). Wer vom Drauen stirbt, dem &c. mit 
Fiirzen . . . lauten! ! ! — 1 

Wrote a Letter to the Dumfries Courier, 
about poor Tom Bell's Massacre at Knock- 
hill, and the Public Prosecutor's neglect to 
indict his Slayer. 2 Can say that I did it from 
a feeling that it was necessary. Whether the 
man will print it or not I shall know to-mor- 
row; in the negative case, I must send it to 
the Journal; and then have done with it. The 
word is spoken, if they see good to shut the 
public ear against it; a la bonne heure / I 
have other work to follow. 

1 These words may be found in Boecking's edition of 
Hutten, Op. Suppl. i. 278, 11. 26 sqq. The context is as 
follows : " Item Bilibaldus nescio quis, qui debet esse in 
Nurmberga : ipse fecit multas minas dicens quod realiter 
vult expedire Theologos scriptis suis. Tunc ego dixi : 
' Qui moritur minis, Ille compulsabiturbombis,' few&w/V*, 
Wer von trewen stirbt, den sol man mit furtzen zum grab 
leutten." I owe this reference to my friend Professor 
von Jagemann, who says : " The Latin context makes it 
clear that Carlyle's second version was intended only as 
a modernization of the first ; but even the first version is 
in a form quite modern as compared with the original." 
The words are too coarse to translate. 

2 This letter is printed by Froude, Life, ii. ch. 3: 
" The young man [Tom Bell] it appeared had been en- 
gaged in some courtship with one of the maid servants of 
the house ; had come that night to see her in the fashion 
common, or indeed universal, with men of his station in 
that quarter, was overheard by the butler, was challenged, 
pursued, and, refusing to answer any interrogatory, but 
hastening to escape, was shot dead by him on the spot." 
Knockhill was near Ecclefechan. 



Got dreadfully ill on with a most tremen- 
dous speculation on History, intended first 
as an introduction to my German work ; then 
found at last that it would not do there ; so 
cut it out (after finishing it) and gave it to 
my Wife. 

I carry less weight now, and skim more 
smoothly along (April 12): why cannot I 
write books (of that kind) as I write letters ? 
They are and will be of only temporary use. 

A man writes me out of Kent (the Rev? 
G. R. Gleig the " Subaltern" 1 ) wanting a Life 
of Goethe ; then still more anxious for one of 

1 The Subaltern, published in 1825, is a story founded 
on incidents in the Peninsular War, in which Gleig had 
served. The book was a good one of its kind, and 
brought reputation to its author, who had left the army 
and taken orders. In 1846 he became Chaplain-general 
of the army. He died in 1885. The Lives which he 
wanted were for some " Library of General Knowledge " 
of which he was editor. In a letter to Eckermann of 
March 20, 1830, Carlyle wrote: "The other day there 
came a letter to me . . . earnestly requesting a ' Life 
of Goethe.' Knowing my correspondent as a man of 
some weight and respectability in literature, I have just 
answered him that the making of Goethe known to Eng- 
land was a task which any Englishman might be proud 
of; but that, as for his Biography, the only rational plan, 
as matters stood, was to take what he himself had seen 
fit to impart on the subject ; and by proper commentary 
and adaptation, above all, by a suitable version, and not 
perversion of what was to be translated, enable an 
Englishman to read it with the eye of a German." Cor- 
respondence between Goethe and Carlyle, p. 170. 



Luther ; — which I have refused. If I write 
Luther, it must be more than a Biographic 
chronicle or less. Shall we go to Weimar 
then in winter, and prepare all the documents 
for that end? — Manos a la obra\ — Take 
the task which is nearest thee ! 

Francis Jeffrey the other week offered me 
a hundred a year; 1 having learned that this 
sum met my yearly wants : he did it neatly 
enough, and I had no doubt of his sincerity. 
What a state of society is this; in which a 
man would rather be shot thro' the heart, 
twenty-times, than do both himself and his 
neighbour a real ease / How separate Pride 
from the natural necessary feeling of Self? 
It is ill to do ; yet may be done. 

On the whole, I have been somewhat in 

1 In his Reminiscences, ii, 254, Carlyle, writing thirty- 
six years later, says : ' ' Jeffrey about this time gener- 
ously offered to confer on me an annuity of ^"ioo ; — 
which annual sum, had it fallen on me from the clouds, 
would have been of very high convenience at that time, 
but which I could not, for a moment, have dreamt of 
accepting as gift or subventionary help from any fellow 
mortal." He goes on to set forth his motives for refusing 
the offer in a passage of acute analysis of his own and 
Jeffrey's feelings in the matter, in which he perhaps 
hardly does justice to the simplicity of Jeffrey's kind in- 
tention. The whole transaction was creditable to both. 
It reminds one of the Wedgwoods' annuity to Coleridge. 
The contrast between Coleridge and Carlyle in their re- 
spective dealing with a similar matter is striking. 



the wrong about ' independence ' ; man is not 
independent of his brother. Twenty men 
united in love can accomplish much that to 
two thousand isolated men were impossible. 
Know this ; and know also that thou hast a 
power of thy own, and standest with a Heaven 
above even thee. — And so, im TenfeVs Namen, 
get to thy work then ! — 

Quid mortui viventium legitis epitaphia ? 1 

/-Hart-man v. Kirch- 

I berg's Epitaph on 

Hutteni opera I. 234 J himself: he was 

Abbot of Fulda 
V about 1500. 

8 th June. Am about beginning the Second 
Volume of that Germ. Lit. Hist. : 
dreadfully lazy to start. I know and feel 
that it will be a trivial insignificant Book, do 
what I can : yet the writing of it sickens me 
and inflames my nerves, as if it were a Poem / 
Were I done with this, I will endeavour to 
compile no more. 

30 th June. On the 22 nd of June 1830, my 

Sister Margaret died at Dumfries, 

whither she had been removed exactly a week 

before for medical help. It was on a Tuesday 

night, about 20 minutes past ten. Alick and 

l •« Why do ye dead read the epitaphs of the living? " 



I were roused by express about midnight, 
and we arrived there about four. That sol- 
stice night with its singing birds and sad 
thoughts I shall never forget. She was in- 
terred next Saturday at Ecclefechan. I reck- 
oned her the best of all my sisters, — in some 
respects the best woman I had ever seen. 
Fain would I have saved her, but it was not 
to be. — 

" Whom bring ye us to the still dwelling?" 
" Tis a tired playmate whom we bring you: 
let her rest in your still dwelling, till the songs 
of her heavenly sisters awaken her." 1 


Thy quiet goodness, [heart so] pure & brave 

now with tears 

[With tears] what boots it [here] to tell ? 

Peace [Rest] 

The path to [God] is thro' the grave; 

take our long 

Thou loved one, for a while, farewell ! 2 

And so this morning (Wednesday), let me 

1 These words are from Wilhelm Meister's Appren- 
ticeship, Book viii. ch. 8. [What a tragedy was this to 
us; how vivid still in all its details to me! (1866.)], is 
written on the margin of the Note-book. In his Reminis- 
cences, ii. 193-195, Carlyle gives a touching account of his 
sister's illness and death. It shows the depth and per- 
manence of his affection. It should be read in connec- 
tion with a letter to his brother John, of June 29, 1830 — 
a most affecting contemporary narrative. Life, ii. 109. 

2 The bracketed words of this stanza are erased in 
the manuscript. 



betake myself again, with what energy I can, 
to the commencement of my task. Work is 
for the living, Rest is for the dead. 

Is not the Christian Religion, is not every 
truly vital interest of mankind (?) a thing 
that grotvs ? Like some Nile ' whose springs 
are indeed hidden, but whose full flood bring- 
ing gladness and fertility from its mysterious 
mountains is seen and welcomed by all.' 
(from myself!) — 

Received • about four weeks ago a strange 
letter from some Saint- Simoniens at Paris, 
grounded on my little Signs of the Times. 1 
These people have strange notions, not with- 
out a large spicing of truth, and are them- 
selves among the Signs. I shall feel curious 
to know what becomes of them. La classe 
la plus pauvre is evidently in the way of rising 
from its present deepest abasement : in time, 
it is likely, the world will be better divided, 
and he that has the toil of ploughing will 
have the first cut at the reaping. — I answered 
these St. Ss. and partly expect to hear from 
them again. 2 

l Published a few months before in the Edinburgh 
Review. The thought contained in the preceding para- 
graph is treated at large in it. 

2" I forget whether I mentioned last week," writes 
Carlyle to his mother, "that we had a parcel from Goethe, 
with pictures of his House, etc. ; and a still stranger 
parcel from Paris addressed to the Author of the Signs 

I 5 8 


A man with ^200,000 a year eats the 
whole fruit of 6,666 men's labour thro' a year ; 
for you can get a stout spademan to work 
and maintain himself for that sum of ^30. 
Thus we have private individuals whose wages 
are equal to the wages of 7 or 8 thousand 
other individuals : what do those highly bene- 
ficed individuals do to society for their wages ? 

of the Times. The people there seem to think me a very 
promising man, and that some good will come of me. 
Thus a prophet is not without honor save in his own 
country. Poor prophet! However, in my present soli- 
tude, I am very glad of these small encouragements." 
Letters, i. 226. In a letter of the 31 August, 1830, to 
Goethe, Carlyle tells of the letter and books sent to 
him by La Sociiti Saint Simonienne and adds : " If you 
have chanced to notice that Saint Simonian affair, 
which long turned on Political Economy, and but lately 
became Artistic and Religious, I should like much to 
hear your thoughts on it." Correspondence of Goethe and 
Carlyle, p. 215. In his reply on the 17th October, Goethe 
merely says: "Von der Socie'te' St. Simonienne bitte 
Sich fern zu halten." " From the St. Simonian Society 
pray hold yourself aloof." Id. p. 226.. Writing again 
to Goethe, on the 22d June, 1831, Carlyle tells of another 
gift of documents from the Saint-Simonians, and says : 
"They seem to me to be earnest, zealous and nowise 
ignorant men, but wandering in strange paths. I should 
say they have discovered and laid to heart this momen- 
tous and now almost forgotten truth, Man is still Man, 
and are already beginning to make false applications of 
it. I have every disposition to follow your advice, and 
stand apart from them ; looking on their Society and its 
progress nevertheless as a true and remarkable Sign of 
the Times." Id. p. 258. In Sartor Resartus, Book iii. 
ch. xii, Carlyle repeats his opinion of the Saint Simo- 
nians in almost the same words as those he had used 
concerning them to Goethe. 



Kill Partridges! Can this last ? No, by the 
soul that is in man, it cannot and will not 
and shall not ! — 

Our Political Economists should collect 
statistical facts / such as, What is the lowest 
sum a man can live on in various countrie's ; 
what is the highest he gets to live on ; How 
many people work with their hands, How 
many with their heads, How many not at all; 

— and innumerable such. What all want to 
know is the condition of our fellow men, and 
strange to say, it is the thing least of all un- 
derstood, or to be understood as matters go. 

— The present ' Science ' of Political Econo- 
my requires far less intellect than successful 
Bellows-mending; and perhaps does less 
good, if we deduct all the evil it brings us. 
1 Tho' young it already carries marks of de- 
crepitude ' : a speedy and soft death to it ! 

You see two men fronting each other ; one 
sits dressed in red cloth, the other stands 
dressed in threadbare blue ; the first says to 
the other: Be hanged and anatomised! — 
and it is forthwith put in execution, and the 
matter rests not till Number Two is a skele- 
ton ! Whence comes it ? These men have 

1 Readers of Sartor Resartus will recall that one of the 
particulars in the famous epitaph of Count Zahdarm is : 
Dum sub Luna agebat, quinquies mille Perdrices plumbo 



no physical hold of each other, they are not in 
contact ; each of the Bailiffs &c. is included 
within his own skin, and not hooked to any 
other. The Reason is: Man is a spirit ; in- 
visible influences run thro' Society, and make 
it a mysterious whole, full of Life and inscrut- 
able activities and capabilities. Our individ- 
ual existence is mystery; our social still 


Nothing can act but where it is ? True, 
if you will; only where is it? Is not the 
Distant, the Dead, whom I love and sorrow 
for, Here, in the genuine spiritual sense, as 
really as the Table I now write on ? Space 
is a mode of our Sense ; so is Time (this I 
only half understand) : we are — we know 
not what ; light-sparkles floating in the Aether 
of the Divinity ! — So that this solid world, 
after all, is but an air-image ; our Me is the 
only reality, ' and all is Godlike or God.' — 2 

Thou wilt have no Mystery and Mysticism ; 
wilt live in the daylight (rushlight ?) of Truth, 
and see thy world and understand it ? Nay 
thou wilt laugh at all that believe in a Mys- 
tery ; to whom the Universe is an Oracle and 
Temple as well as a Kitchen and Cattle-stall ? 
Armer Teufel 7 Doth not thy Cow calve, doth 
not thy Bull gender? Nay (peradventure) 

IThis paragraph, in fuller development, is embodied 
in Sartor Res artus, Book i. ch. ix. 
2 Cf. Sartor Resartus, Book i. ch. vii. 

ii 161 


dost not thou thyself gender ? Explain me 
that ; or do one of two things : Retire into 
private places with thy foolish cackle; or, 
what were better, give it up, and weep, not 
that the world is mean and disenchanted and 
prosaic, but that thou art vain and blind. — 1 

Is anything more wonderful than another, 
if you consider it maturely ? / have seen no 
men rise from the Dead; I have seen some 
thousands rise from Nothing: I have not 
force to fly into the Sun, but I have force to 
lift my hand ; which is equally strange. 2 

Wonder is the basis of worship : the reign 
of Wonder is perennial, indestructible ; only 
at certain stages (as the present) it is (for 
some short season) in partibus infidelium? 

What is a man if you look at him with the 

1 Cf. Sartor Resartus, Book i. ch. x, where this para- 
graph appears with some enlargement. 

2 " Thus were it not miraculous, could I stretch forth 
my hand and clutch the Sun ? Yet thou seest me daily 
stretch forth my hand and therewith clutch many a thing, 
and swing it hither and thither. Art thou a grown baby, 
then, to fancy that the Miracle lies in miles of distance, 
or in pounds avoirdupois of weight ; and not to see that 
the true inexplicable God-revealing Miracle lies in this, 
that I stretch forth my hand at all ; that I have free force 
to clutch aught therewith ? " 

Sartor Resartus ; Book iii. ch. viii. 

3 This sentence appears in Sartor Resartus, Book i. 
ch. x. 



mere Logical sense, with the Understanding ? 
A pitiful hungry biped that wears breeches. 
Often when I read of pompous ceremonials, 
drawing-room levees and coronations, on a 
sudden the clothes fly off the whole party in 
my fancy, and they stand there straddling, 
in a half-ludicrous, half-horrid condition! — 
August 1830. 1 

September 7^ Yesterday I received tid- 
ings that my project of 
cutting up that thrice-wretched Hist. G. 
Literature into Review Articles, and so 
realizing something for my Year's work, 
will not take effect. The ' Course of Provi- 
dence ' (nay sometimes I almost feel that 
there is such a thing even for me) seems 
guiding my steps into new regions ; the ques- 
tion is coming more and more towards a 
decision : Canst thou, there as thou art, ac- 
complish aught good and true, or art thou to 
die miserably as a vain Pretender ? It is 
above a year since I wrote one sentence that 
came from the right place ; since I did one 
action that seemed to be really worthy. The 
want of money is a comparatively insignifi- 
cant affair : 2 were I doing well otherwise, I 

1 Here is the first formal expression of the thought 
that grew into Sartor Resartus. Cf. Book i. chs. ix, x, 
in which the special fancies of this paragraph have their 
full play. 

2 "We are very poor at present; but that is all, and 



could most readily consent to go destitute 
and suffer all sorts of things. On the whole 
I am a — But tush! — 

The Moral Nature of a man is not a com- 
posite factitious concern, but lies in the very 
heart of his being, as his very Self of Selves. 
The first alleviation to irremediable Pain is 
some conviction that it has been merited; 
that it comes from the All-just, from God. — 

What am I but a sort of Ghost? Men 
rise as Apparitions from the bosom of Night, 
and after grinning, squeaking, gibbering some 
space, return thither. The earth they stand 
on is Bottomless; the vault of their sky is 
Infinitude; the Life- Time is encompassed 
with Eternity. O wonder! And they buy 
cattle or seats in Parliament, and drink 
coarser or finer fermented liquours, as if all 
this were a City that had foundations. 1 

I have strange glimpses of the power of 
spiritual Union, of Association among men 
of like object. Therein lies the true Element 
of Religion : it is a truly supernatural cli- 
mate. All wondrous things, from a Pennen- 
den Heath, or Penny-a-week Purgatory So- 

we will get over that. Fear nothing: we mean nothing 
but honest things, and must and will prosper in them, 
seeing the very effort is success." Carlyle to his brother 
John, Aug. 6, 1830. Letters, i. 230. 
l Cf. Sartor Resartus, Book i. ch. iii. 



ciety, to the foundation of a Christianity, or 
the (now obsolete) exercise of magic, take 
their rise here. Men work godlike miracles 
thereby, and the horridest abominations. 
Society is a wonder of wonders ; x and Politics 
(in the right sense, far, very far from the 
common one) is the noblest Science. 

Cor ne edito ! 2 Up and be doing ! Hast thou 
not the strangest grandest of all talents com- 
mitted to thee; namely Life itself? O 
Heaven ! And it is momently rusting and 
wasting, if thou use it not. Up and be do- 
ing; and pray (if thou but can) to the Un- 
seen Author of all thy Strength to guide thee 

1 Cf. Sartor Resartus, Book iii. ch. ii. 

2 See ante, p. 131. This injunction is among the say- 
ings ascribed to Pythagoras by Diogenes Laertius in his 
Life of the philosopher, § 18. Plutarch cites it in his 
essay 'Of the Training of Children.' "Eat not thy 
heart ; which forbids to afflict our souls, and waste them 
with vexatious cares." But, as was long since pointed out, 
the conception of eating one's own heart is to be found 
in Homer, in the pathetic verses describing Bellerophon : 

— olog dXutOf 
Ov &Vfiov xatidoiv, ndtov dv&QOJrttav aXsshcov. 
" He wandered solitary, eating his own heart, avoiding 
the path of men." Iliad, vi. 201-2; and again in the 
ninth book of the Odyssey, vv. 74, 75, "There," says 
Ulysses, "for two nights and days we lay, eating our 
hearts because of toil and trouble." Carlyle had expe- 
rienced the bitterness of this diet. "It was my own 
heart . . . that I kept devouring," says Teufelsdrockh, 
Sartor Resartus , Book ii. ch. viii. And in Wotton Rein/red, 
Carlyle wrote, "He hurried into the country, not to 
possess his soul in peace as he had hoped, but, in truth, 
like Homer's Bellerophon, to eat his own heart." P. 43. 



and aid thee; to give thee if not Victory 
and Possession, unwearied Activity and 
Entsagen. — 

Is not every Thought properly an Inspira- 
tion ? Or how is one thing more inspired 
than another ? Much is in this. — 

Why should Politeness be the peculiar 
characteristic of the Rich and Well-born ? 
Is not every man alive ; is not every man 
infinitely venerable to every other ? ' There 
is but one Temple in the Universe ' says No- 
valis, ' and that is the body of man.' 1 — 

Franz von Sickingen was one of the no- 
blest men of the Reformation Period. He 
defended Ulrich von Hutten j warred against 
perfidious Wiirtemberg; was the terror of 
evil doers the praise of whoso did well. 
Hutten and he read Luther together : Light 
rising in Darkness! He also stood by 
Gotz von Berlichingen, and now walks in 
Poetry. But why I mention him here is his 
transcendent good-breeding. He was at 
feud with his superior the Bishop of Triers, 
and besieged by him, and valiantly defend- 
ing himself against injustice, at the moment 
when he received his death-wound. His 
Castle was surrendered; Triers and others 

1 Novalis Schriften, ii. 126. Berlin, 1826. The pre- 
ceding entry is developed in Sartor Resartus, Book iii. 
ch. iv. 



approached the brave man over whose coun- 
tenance the last paleness was already spread- 
ing. He took off his cap to Triers, there as 
he lay in that stern agony. What a picture ! 
— "He had feud with the Archbishop of 
Trier, whom the Elector Palatine, the Land- 
graf of Hessen, and a large portion of the 
German Nobles were assisting. His castle 
Landstein was besieged by these Allies in 
1523; the hero defended it night and day 
with unflinching steadfastness and valour. 
At last he was struck on the roof [Dach- 
mauer) by a musket ball, and fell. He lived 
four and twenty hours; spoke kindly with 
the Princes who had conquered him; and 
tho' already todtschwach 1 took off his cap 
(Muzze) to the Archbishop whose vassal he 
was. Even his Enemies wept at the lordly 
obsequies that in the Church at Landstein 
were rendered him." Ulrich von Hutien by 
Wagenseil (page already lost in turning to 
the Title!) — Lands tuhl the Conv. Lexicon 
calls the Castle. Munch, F. von Sickingen's 
Plane, Thaten, Freunde und Ausgang is in two 
volumes. Should like to see it. — 

Nulla dies sine lineal — Eheu! Eheu ! 
Yesterday (Monday) accordingly I wrote a 
thing in dactyls, entitled the Wandering 
Spirits, which now fills and then filled me 

1 " Faint with death." 


' with detestation and abhorrence.' No mat- 
ter: to day I must do the like. Nulla dies 
sine lineal To the persevering, they say, 
all things are possible. Possible or impossi- 
ble, I have no other implement for trying. 

Last night I sat up very late reading 
Scott's History of Scotland. An amusing 
Narrative, clear, precise and I suppose accu- 
rate j but no more a History of Scotland than 
I am Pope of Rome. A series of Palace 
intrigues, and butcheries and battles little 
more important than those of Donnybrook 
Fair; all the while that Scotland, quite un- 
noticed, is holding on her course in Industry, 
in Arts, in Culture, as if Langside and 
Clean-the- Causeway had remained unfought. 
Strange that a man should think he was 
writing the History of a Nation, while he is 
chronicling the amours of a wanton young 
woman called Queen, and a sulky booby 
recommended to Kingship for his fine limbs, 
and then blown up with gunpowder for ill- 
behaviour. Good Heaven ! let them fondle 
and pout and bicker ad libitum : what has 
God's fair Creation, and man's immortal Des- 
tiny to do with them and their trade ?— 

One inference I have drawn from Scott: 
that the people in those old days had a singu- 
lar talent for nicknames : King Toom-Tabard, 
Bell the Cat (less meritorious), the Foul Raid, 
the Roundabout 'Raid, Clean-the- Causeway , the 
1 68 


lulchan Prelates, 1 &c. &c. Apparently there 
was more Humour in the national mind then 
than now. 

For the rest, the Scottish History looks like 
that of a Gypsey encampment : industry of 
the rudest, largely broken by sheer indolence ; 
smoke, sluttishness, hunger, scab and — blood. 
Happily, as hinted, Scotland herself was not 

Lastly it is noteworthy that the Nobles of 
the country have maintained a quite despi- 
cable behaviour, from the times of Wallace 
downwards. A selfish, ferocious, famishing, 
unprincipled set of hyaenas, from whom at 
no time and in no way has the country de- 
rived any benefit. The day is coming when 
these our modern hyaenas (tho' toothless, still 
mischievous, and greedy beyond limit) will 
(quickly I hope) be paid off. " Canaille fain- 
e'ante, que faites-vous la ? Down with your 
double-barrels ; take spades, if ye can do no 
better, and work or die ! " 

The quantity of Pain thou feelest is indica- 
tion of the quantity of Life, of Talen t, thou hast : 
a stone feels no Pain. — (' Is that a fact ? ') 

1 A tulchane is, according to Jaraieson, Dictionary of the 
Scottish Language, " a calf's skin stuffed with straw, and 
set beside a cow, to make her give milk;" and a Tul- 
chane Bishop, "one who received the episcopate on 
condition of assigning the temporalities to a secular 



Thursday, Wrote a fractionlet of verse 
9 th September entitled The Beetle 1 (a real 
incident on Glaisters Moor), 
which alas ! must stand for the Linea both 
of Tuesday and Wednesday. To day I am 
to try I know not what. Greater clearness 
will arrive ; I make far most progress when 
I walk, on solitary roads — of which there 
are enough here. 

Last night came a whole Bundle of Fraser 
Magazines &c. : two little Papers by my 
Brother in them; some (small-beer) Fables 
by me ; and on the whole such a hurlyburly 
of rhodomontade, punch, loyalty, and Saturna- 
lian Toryism as eye hath not seen. This out- 
Blackwoods Blackwood. Nevertheless the 
thing has its meaning : a kind of wild popu- 
lar Lower-Comedy; of which John Wilson is 
the Inventor: it may perhaps, for it seems 
well adapted to the age, carry down his name 
to other times, as his most remarkable achieve- 
ment. All the Magazines (except the New 
Monthly) seem to aim at it : a certain quick- 
ness, fluency of banter, not excluding sharp 
insight, and Merry- Andrew Drollery, and 
even Humour, are available here ; however, 
the grand requisite seems to be Impudence, 
and a fearless committing of yourself to talk 
in your Drink. — Literature has nothing to do 
with this, but Printing has; and Printing is 
l See Essays, i., Appendix, for these verses. 


now no more the peculiar symbol and livery 
of Literature than writing was in Gutenberg's 
day. — 

Great actions are sometimes historically 
barren; smallest actions have taken root (in 
the moral soil) and grown like banana-forests 
to cover whole quarters of the world. Aris- 
totle's Philosophy and the Sermon on the 
Mount (and both too had fair trial) ; the 
Mecanique Celeste and the Sorrows of Wer- 
ter ; Alexander's Expedition, and that of 
Paul an Apostle of the Gentiles ! Of these, 
however, Werter is half a gourd, and only by 
its huge decidua (to be used as manure) will 
fertilize the Future. So too with the rest ; all 
are deciduous, and must at last make manure ; 
only at longer dates. Yet of some the root 
also (?) seems to be undying. 

What are Schiller and Goethe, if you try 
them in that way ? As yet it is too soon to 
try them. No true effort can be lost. 

One thing we see: the moral nature of 
man is deeper than his intellectual ; things 
planted down into the former may grow as 
if forever ; the latter as a kind of drift mould 
produces only annuals. What is J esus Christ's 
significance ? Altogether moral. 

What is Jeremy Bentham's significance ? 
Altogether intellectual, logical. I name him 
as the representative of a class, important 
only for their numbers; intrinsically weari- 



some, almost pitiable and pitiful. Logic is 
their sole foundation, no other even recog- 
nized as possible : wherefore their system is 
a Machine, and cannot grow or endure ; but 
after thrashing for a little (and doing good 
service that way) must thrash itself to pieces, 
and be made fuel. — Alas poor England, 
stupid, purblind, pudding-eating England ! 
Bentham with his Mills grinding thee out 
Morality; and some Macaulay, also be- 
aproned and a grinder, testing it and decry- 
ing it, because it is not his own Whig-estab- 
lished Quern-morality ! I mean that the 
Utilitarians have Logical Machinery, and do 
grind fiercely and potently, on their own 
foundation; whereas the Whigs have no 
foundation but must stick up their handmills, 
or even pepper-mills, on what fixture they can 
come at, and there grind as it pleases Heaven. 
The Whigs are Amateurs, the Radicals are 

The Sin of this age is Dilettantism; the 
Whigs, and all 'moderate Tories,' are the 
grand Dilettanti : I begin to feel less and less 
patience for them. This is no world where 
a man should stand trimming his whiskers, 
looking on at work, or touching it with the 
point of a gloved finger. Man sollte greifen 
zu ! 1 There is more hope of an Atheist Utilita- 
rian, of a Superstitious Ultra, than of such a 

1 " One must grip hold." 


lukewarm, withered mongrel. He would not 
believe tho' one rose from the dead. He is 
wedded to his idols, let him alone. 

September Rain! Rain! Rain! The 

(about the 28th). crops all lying tattered, 

scattered and unripe j the 

winter's bread still under the soaking clouds ! 

God pity the poor ! 

The Jeffreys were here for about a week. 1 
Very good and interesting beyond wont was 
our worthy Dean. He is growing old, and 
seems dispirited and partly unhappy. — The 
fairest cloak has its wrong side, where the 
seams and straggling stitches afflict the eye ! 
Envy no man ; nescis quo urit, thou knowest 
not where the shoe pinches. 

Jeffrey's essential talent sometimes seems 
to me to have been that of a Goldoni ; some 
comic Dramatist not without a touch of true 
lyrical pathos. He is the best mimic (in the 
lowest and highest senses) I ever saw. All 
matters that have come before him he has 
taken up in little dainty comprehensible forms ; 
chiefly logical (for he is a Scotchman and 
Lawyer) and encircled with sparkles of con- 
versational wit ox persiflage ; yet with deeper 

ISee Reminiscences, "Lord Jeffrey," ii. 245, sqq. for 
Carlyle's recollections of this visit, and his final estimate 
of his friend. 



study he would have found poetical forms for 
them, and his persiflage might have incor- 
porated itself gracefully with the Love and 
pure humane feeling that dwells deeply in 
him. This last is his highest strength, tho' 
he himself hardly knows the significance of 
it : he is one of the most loving men alive ; 
has a true kindness, not of blood and habit 
only, but of soul and spirit. He cannot do 
without being loved. He is in the highest 
degree social ; and in defect of this, gregar- 
ious ; which last condition he (in these bad 
times) has for most part had to content him- 
self withal. Every way indeed he has fallen 
on evil days : the prose spirit of the world (to 
which world his kindliness draws him so 
strongly and closely) has choked up and all 
but withered the better poetic spirit he de- 
rived from nature. Whatever is highest, he 
entertains (like other Whigs) only as an orna- 
ment, as an appendage. The great business 
of Man he (intellectually) considers as a 
worldling does : To be happy. I have heard 
him say : ? If Folly were the happiest, I would 
be a fool.' Yet his daily Life belies this 
doctrine, and says : \ Tho' Goodness were the 
most wretched I would be Good.' 

In conversation he is brilliant (or rather 
sparkling), lively, kind, willing either to speak 
or listen, and above all men I have ever seen, 
ready and copious. On the whole exceed- 



ingly pleasant in light talk. Yet alas light, 
light, too light! He will talk of nothing 
earnestly, tho' his look sometimes betrays an 
earnest feeling. He starts contradiction in 
such cases, and argues, argues. Neither is 
his arguing like that of a Thinker, but of an 
Advocate ; Victory not Truth. A right Terrae 
Filius would feel irresistibly disposed to 
' wash him away.' He is not a strong man 
in any shape ; but nimble and tough. 

He stands midway between God and 
Mammon ; and his preaching thro' Life has 
been an attempt to reconcile these. Hence 
his popularity; a thing easily accountable when 
one looks at the world and at him ; but little 
honourable to either. Literature ! Poetry ! 
Except by a dim indestructible Instinct, 
which he has never dared to avow, yet being 
a true Poet (in his way) could never eradicate 
— he knows not what they mean. A true 
Newspaper Critic, on the great scale; no 
Priest, but a Concionator ! 

Yet on the whole, he is about the best man 
I ever saw. Sometimes I think he will ab- 
jure the Devil (if he live), and become a pure 
Light. Already he is a most tricksy dainty 
beautiful little Spirit : I have seen gleams on 
the face and eyes of the man that let you 
look into a higher country. God bless him ! 
And I will blab no more. These jottings are 
as sincere as I could write them, yet too dim 



and inaccurately compacted. I see the nail, 
but have not here hit it on the head. Basta / 

I am going to write — Nonsense. It is 
on " Clothes." * Heaven be my comforter ! — 

It was a wise regulation, which ordained 
that certain days and times should be set 
apart for Seclusion and Meditation; whether 
as Fasts or not may reasonably admit of 
doubt, the business being * to get out of the 
Body to philosophize.' But, on the whole, 
there is a deep significance in Silence. 
Were a man forced for a length of time but 
to hold his peace, it were in most cases an in- 
calculable benefit to his insight. Thought 
works in Silence ; so does Virtue. One might 
erect statues to Silence. I sometimes think 
it were good for me, who after all cannot err 
much in loquacity here, did I impose on my- 
self at set times, the duty — of not speaking 
for a day. What folly would one avoid, did 
the tongue lie quiet till the mind had fin- 
ished, and were calling for utterance. Not 
only our good Thoughts but our good Pur- 
poses also are frittered asunder and dissipated 
by unseasonable speaking of them. Words, 
the strangest product of our nature, are also 
the most potent. Beware of speaking. Speech 

1 Sartor Resartus ; begun at this time, the book was 
completed in July, 1831. See Letters, i. 235, 300. 



is human, Silence is divine : yet also brutish 
and dead ; therefore we must learn both arts, 
they are both difficult. Flower-roots hidden 
under soil; Bees working in Darkness, &c. 
The soul too in Silence. — Let not thy left 
hand know what thy right hand doeth. In- 
deed, Secrecy is the element of all Goodness j 
every Virtue, every Beauty is mysterious. I 
hardly understand even the surface of this. — * 

Written a strange piece " On clothes " : 
know not what will come of it. October 28^ 


See in Goethe's Werke B[and] 31, about 
page 220, for the possible material of an 

Our loveliest dear doth sit down stairs 
Seek well and the gay sweetheart you'll find 
A timber gown is the suit she wears, 
And her name is the Muscadine. 2 

Seb. Brandt. 

Gutes Pferd 

Ist's Hafers werth. 3 

(Myself! November 24th) 

Received the ■ ornamented Schiller ' from 

1 Cf. Sartor Resartus, Book iii. ch. iii, where the sub- 
stance of this entry is reworked. 

2 See ante (page 118). 

3 "A good horse is worth his oats." 

12 177 


Goethe, and wondered not a little to see poor 
old Craigenputtock engraved at Frankfort on 
the Meyn. If I become anything it will look 
well; if I become nothing, a piece of kind 
dotage (on his part). 1 — Sent away the Clothes ;^ 
of which I could make a kind of Book ; but 
cannot afford it. Have still the Book in 
petto (?) but in the most chaotic shape. 

The Whigs in office, and Baron Brougham 
Lord Chancellor ! Hay-stacks and corn- 
stacks burning over all the South and 
Middle of England ! Where will it end ? 
Revolution on the back of Revolution for a 

1 On the sixth of June, 1830, Goethe wrote to Carlyle : 
" Further you will find in the little box the last sheets of 
the translation of your Life of Schiller. The publication 
has been delayed, and I wished to make the little work 
especially pretty, for the sake of the publisher, as well as 
for its own. I have certainly pleased the public, so may 
you excuse it. The frontispiece represents your house 
from a near point of view, the vignette on the title-page, 
the same from a distance. . . . Outside, on the front 
cover is a view of Schiller's house in Weimar ; and on 
the cover at the back, a little garden-house [at Jena] 
which he himself built in order that he might withdraw 
from his family and all the world." , Correspondence be- 
tween Goethe and Carlyle, p. 203. To this volume, which 
has now become scarce, Goethe prefixed a long preface 
of much interest, a translation of which forms the first 
appendix to the above-cited Correspondence, occupying 
pp. 299-323. 

2 It was Carlyle's first intention to make two magazine 
articles of what became the book Sartor. This paper 
which he sent to Fraser's Magazine was entitled 
" Thoughts on Clothes." See Letters, i. 238, 249. 



century yet ? Religion, the cement of Society ■, 
is not here: we can have no permanent 
beneficent arrangement of affairs. 

Not that we want no Aristocracy, but that 
we want a true one. While the many work 
with their hands, let the few work with their 
heads and hearts, honestly, and not with a 
shameless villainy only pretend to work, or 
even openly steal — Were the Landlords all 
hanged, and their estates given to the poor, 
we should be (economically) much happier 
perhaps for the space of thirty years j but the 
Population would be doubled then, and again 
the Hunger of the unthrifty would burn the 
granary of the industrious. Alas! that there 
is no Church ; and as yet no apparent possi- 
bility of one ! 

The divine right of Squires is equal to the 
right divine of Kings, and not superior ? A 
word has made them, and a word can un- 

I have no Property in anything whatsoever ; 
except perhaps (if I am a virtuous man) in 
my own Free-will : of my Body I have only 
a life-rent; of all that is without my Skin 
only an accidental Possession — so long as I 
can keep it. Vain man ! are the stars thine 
because thou lookest on them ; is that piece 
of Earth thine because thou hast eaten of its 



fruits ? Thy proudest Palace, what is it but a 
Tent; pitched not indeed for days, yet for 
years ? The earth is the Lord's. Remember 
this, and seek other Duties than game-pre- 
serving, wouldest thou not be an interloper, 
sturdy beggar, and even thief : — 

Faules Pferd 

Keins Hafers werth.i 

The Labourer is worthy of his Hire; and the 
Idler of his also, — namely of Starvation. 

What is Art and Poetry ? Is the Beautiful 
really higher than the Good ? A higher form 
thereof ? Thus were a Poet not only a Priest 
but a High- Priest. 

Examine by Logic the import of thy Life, 
and of all lives : What is it ? A making of 
Meal into Manure; and of Manure into 
Meal. 2 To the Cui-bono there is no answer 
from Logic. 

Clara gives a kiss, is it much for her to do ? 
When she gives one don't she take one too ? 

Canst keep thy own secret 
No other will break it. 

1 " The idle horse not worth his oats." 

2 Compare the humorous development of this thought 
in the epitaph on Count Zahdarm, Sartor Resartus \ Book 
ii. ch. iv. 



These two from Logaiu A Latin transla- 
tion of Mai in Jordens B[and] 6. 

(Written here to get rid of a rag of Paper 
— it is a sorting day — Ach !) 

29th December The old year just expiring ; 
1 830. one of the most worthless 

years I have spent for a 
long time. Durch eignes und andrer Schuld! * 
But words are worse than nothing. To thy 
Review' 1 (Taylor's Hist. Survey.) Is it the 
most despicable of work ? Yet is it not too 
good for thee ? O, I care not for Poverty, lit- 
tle even for Disgrace, nothing at all for want 
of Renown : but the horrible feeling is when 
I cease my own struggle, lose the conscious- 
ness of my own strength, and become posi- 
tively quite worldly and wicked. — 

In the paths of Fortune (Fortune ! ) I have 
made no advancement, since last year; but 
on the contrary (owing chiefly to that German 
Literary History, one way and another) con- 
siderably retrograded. No matter; had I 
but progressed in the other better path ! But 
alas ! alas ! — Howsoever, pocas palabras I I 
am still here. 

Bist Du glucklich, Du Gute, dass Du unter 
die Erde bist ? — Wo stehst Du ? Liebst Du 

1 " Through my own and others' fault." 

2 Historic Survey of German Poetry. By W. Taylor of 
Norwich, 3 vols., 8vo. London, 1830. 



mich noch ? I — God is the God of the Dead 
as well as of the living: the Dead, as the 
Living, are where — He wills. 

Kehret ins Leben zuruck t ■• — Jack 3 writes 
miserably hurried letters : I fear he is un- 
happy j there is no doubt he is a little unwise ; 
yet I think him gathering wisdom. 

This Taylor is a wretched Atheist and 
Philistine : it is my duty (perhaps) to put the 
flock, whom he professes to lead, on their 
guard. Let me do it well I 

In a purse from my wife, yesterday (De- 
cember 30th 1830); written with pencil on a 
slip of paper, which I now burn : 

Fortunatus' Purse was a mighty fine thing, 
Yet a pest, nothing else, to its owner ; 
For me, neither guineas nor troubles I bring, 
My whole worth is the Love of my donor. 

Feby7*M831. Finished the Review of 
Taylor some three weeks 
ago, and sent it off: no tidings about it yet. 
It is worth little, and only partially in a right 
spirit. — 

l " Art thou fortunate, thou Good One, in being under 
the earth ? Where art thou ? Still lovest thou me?" 

2 " Let us come back to life." 

3 Dr. John Carlyle, then in London. 



Sent to Jack to liberate my Teufelsdreck 1 
from Editorial durance in London, and am seri- 
ously thinking to make a Book of it. 2 The 
thing is not right, not Art j yet perhaps a 
nearer approach to Art than I have yet made. 
We ought to try. I want to get it done ; and 
then translate Faust, as I have partially prom- 
ised to Goethe. Thro' Teufelsdreck I am yet 
far from seeing my way ; nevertheless mate- 
rials are partly forthcoming. — 

Goethe has lost his son, and been on the 
point of death himself. Venerable old man ! 
Shall I never see thee with these eyes ? — A 
letter of mine will be about this time in his 

No sense from the Foreign Quarterly Re- 
view ; have nearly determined on opening a 
correspondence on the matter of that ' ever- 
lasting MS ' with Bowring of the Westminster. 
Could write also a Paper on the Saint-Simo- 
nians. One too on Dr. Johnson — for Napier. 
Such are the financial aspects. N. B. I have 
some ^5 to front the world with; and ex- 
pect no more for months. Jack too is in 
the neap tide. — Hand to the oar ! — 

All Europe is in a state of disturbance, of 

1 See Letters, i. 249. " Teufelsdreck, that is the title of 
my present Schrift." Id. 237. 

2 Had gone to Fraset first, then ? [T. C. 1866.] 



Revolution. About this very time they may 
be debating the question of British 'Reform,' 
in London : the Parliament opened last week, 
our news of it expected on Wednesday. The 
times are big with change. Will one century 
of constant fluctuation serve us, or shall we 
need two ? Their Pari. Reforms, and all that, 
are of small moment ; a beginning (of good 
& evil) nothing more. The whole frame of 
Society is rotten and must go for fuel-wood, 
and where is the new frame to come from ? 
I know not, and no man knows. 

The only Sovereigns of the world in these 
days are the Literary men (were there any 
such in Britain), the Prophets. It is always 
a Theocracy; the King has to be anointed 
by the Priest, and now the Priest (the Goethe 
for example) will not cannot consecrate the 
existing King, who therefore is a usurper, and 
reigns only by sufferance. What were the 
bet that King William were the last of that 
Profession in Britain, and Queen Victoria 
never troubled with the sceptre at all ? Mighty 
odds ; yet nevertheless not infinite ; for what 
thing is certain now ? No mortal cares two- 
pence for any King, or obeys any King ex- 
cept thro' compulsion: and Society is not a 
Ship of war, its Government cannot always be 
a Pressgang. 

What are the Episcopal Dignitaries saying 


to it ? Who knows but Edward Irving may 
yet be a Bishop! They will clutch round 
them for help, and unmuzzle all manner of 
Bulldogs when the thief is at the gate : Bull- 
dogs with teeth ; the generality have no teeth 
in that Kennel. 

Kings do reign by divine right, or not at 
all. The King that were God-appointed, 
would be an emblem of God, and could de- 
mand all obedience from us. But where is 
that King ? The Best Man, could we find 
him, were he. Tell us, tell us, O ye Codifiers 
and Statists and Economists, how we shall 
find him and raise him to the throne : — or 
else admit that the science of Polity is worse 
than unknown to you. 

Earl {Jarl, Yirl), Count, Duke, Knight, &c. 
&c. are all titles derived ixom. fighling : the 
honour-titles, in a future time, will derive 
themselves from knowing and well-doing. 
They will also be conferred with more deli- 
beration, and by better judges. This is a 
prophecy of mine. 1 

God is above us ! Else the figure of the 
world were well nigh desperate. ' Go where 
we may the deep Heaven will be round us.' 

Jeffrey is Lord Advocate and M. P. Sobbed 
and shrieked at taking office, like a bride going 
l Cf. Sartor Resartus, Book iii. ch. vii. 
I8 5 


to be married. I wish him altogether well j 
but reckon that he is on the wrong course : 
Whiggism, I believe, is all but forever dofie. 
Away with Dilettantism and Machiavelism, 
tho' we should get Atheism and Sanscullotism 
in their room ! The latter are at least sub- 
stantial things, and do not build on a con- 
tinued wilful falsehood. — 

But oh ! But oh ! Where is Teufelsdreck 
all this while ? — The Southwest is busy thaw- 
ing off that horrible snow-storm ; Time rests 
not : thou only art idle. To pen ! to pen ! 
(I shall have Benvenuto Cellini at night.) — 

Feb? 14*!? Ay de mil Another week 
gone, painfully and lazily 
and no work done ! — 

Benvenuto Cellini a very worthy Book, 
gives more insight into Italy than fifty Leo- 
Tenths would do. 1 A remarkable man Ben- 
venuto and in a remarkable scene. Religion 
and Art with Ferocity and Sensuality ; pol- 
ished Respect with stormful Independence; 
faithfully obedient subjected to Popes who 
are not Hierarchs but plain scoundrels ! Life 
was far sunnier and richer then; but a time 
of change (loudly called for) was advancing, — 
and but lately has reached its crisis. — Goethe's 
Essay on Benvenuto quite excellent. — 

1 The Autobiography of Benvenuto Cellini, compared 
with Roscoe's Life of Leo X. 



Pope's Homer's Odyssey, surely a very- 
false and tho' ingenious and talented yet bad 
translation. The old Epics are great because 
they (musically) show us the whole world of 
those old days : a modern Epic that did the 
like would be equally admired, and for us far 
more admirable. But where is the genius that 
can write it ? Patience ! Patience ! he will 
be here one of these centuries. 

Is Homer or Shakespeare the greater ge- 
nius? Were hard to say. Shakespeare's 
world is the more complex, the more spir- 
itual, and perhaps his mastery over it was 
equally complete. 'We are such stuff as 
Dreams are made on ' : there is the basis of 
a whole Poetic universe; to that mind all 
forms, and figures of men and things, would 
become ideal. — 

What is a Whole ? Or how, specially, does 
a Poem differ from Prose ? Ask not a defini- 
tion of it in words, which can hardly express 
common Logic correctly; study to create in 
thyself a feeling of it : like so much else, it 
cannot be made clear, hardly even to thy 
thought (?) — Alas, 'white men know no- 

I see some vague outline of what a Whole 
is : also how an individual Delineation may 
be ' informed with the Infinite ' ; may appear 
hanging in the universe of Time & Space 



(partly) : in which case is it a Poem and a 
Whole ? Therefore, are the true Heroic Poems 
of these times to be written with the ink of 
Science I Were a correct philosophic Biog- 
raphy of a Man (meaning by philosophic all 
that the name can include) the only method 
of celebrating him ? The true History (had 
we any such, or even generally any dream of 
such) the true Epic Poem? — I partly begin 
to surmise so. — What after all is the true pro- 
portion of St. Matthew to Homer, of the 
Crucifixion to the Fall of Troy! 

On the whole I wish I could define to 
myself the true relation of moral genius to 
poetic genius; of Religion to Poetry. Are 
they one and the same, different forms of the 
same ; and if so which is to stand higher, the 
Beautiful or the Good ? Schiller and Goethe 
seem to say the former, as if it included the 
latter and might supersede it : how truly I 
can never well see. — Meanwhile that the fac- 
ulties always go together seems clear. It is a 
gross calumny on human nature to say that 
there ever was a mind of surpassing talent 
that did not also surpass in capability of 
virtue; and vice versa ; nevertheless in both 
cases there are ' female geniuses" too, minds 
that admire and receive, but can hardly 
create; I have observed in these also the 
taste for Religion and for Poetry go to- 


gether. The most wonderful words that I ever 
heard of being uttered by man are those in 
the four Evangelists, by Jesus of Nazareth. 
Their intellectual talent is hardly inferior to 
their moral. On this subject, if I live, I hope 
to have much to say. 

And so ends my first Notebook, after nigh 
eight years, — here at Craigenputtock, at my 
own hearth, and tho' amid trouble and dispir- 
itment enough, yet with better outlooks 
than I had then. My outward world is not 
much better (yes it is, though I have far less 
money), but my inward is ; and I can prom- 
ise myself never to be so miserable again. 
Farewell ye that have fallen asleep since 
then; farewell, tho' distant perhaps near me ! 
Welcome the Good and Evil that is to come, 
thro' which God assist me to struggle wisely ! 
What have I to look back on ? Little or 
nothing. What forward to ? My own small 
sickly force amid wild enough whirlpools! 
The more diligently apply it then. NOg 

1 M The night cometh." John ix. 4. 



Begun in London. 

August 4* Left Craigenputtock, 1 and my 
1831. kind little wife, Alick 2 driving 

me, at 2 o'clock in the morn- 
ing. Shipped at Glencaple 3 : hazy day : saw 
Esbie 4 in the steerage ; talked mysticism with 
him during six weary hours we had to stay 
at Whitehaven. Reimbarkment there, amid 
bellowing and tumult and fiddling unutter- 
able : all like a spectral vision — ' she is [not] 
there.' St. Bees Head. Man with the Nose. 
Sleep in the steamboat cabin: confusion 
worse confounded. Morning : views of Chesh- 
ire, the Rock, Liverpool and steamboats. 
Boy — Man. 

1 For a long contemplated visit to London in the hope 
of finding a publisher for Sartor Resartus, which had 
just been completed. 

2 His brother. 

3 Five miles beyond Dumfries. 

* An old acquaintance, described in a letter of 27 Nov., 
1818, to Mr. Robert Mitchell, asa" double-refined trav- 
elling tutor. "—Early Letters, i. 191. 

I 9 I 


5* 7^ in the morning. Land at Liver- 
pool : all abed at Maryland street. 1 Boy 
Alick 2 accompanies me over Liverpool. Ex- 
change-Dome : dim view there. Dust, toil ; 
cotton-bags, hampers, repairing ships, dis- 
loading stones. Carson 3 a hash. Melancholy 
body of the name of Sloan. Wifekin's assi- 
duity in caring for me. 4 

6^ (Saturday) taken to one Johnstone a 
Frenchified Lockerby man, 
who leads me to 'Change; place in 'the In- 
dependent Tallyho, Sir! ' — See George John- 
stone, Surgeon, whom I had unearthed the 
night before. Patient of his. He dines with 
us. Walk on the Terrace near the Cemetery. 
Have seen the Steam-coaches 5 in the morn- 
ing. Liverpool a dismembered aggregate of 
streets and sandpits. Market-hubbub. 

1 Home of Mrs. Carlyle's uncle, Mr. John Welsh, 
"a most munificent, affectionate and nobly honorable 
kind of man." Reminiscences i. 156; see also pp. 166-168. 

2 Son of Mr. John Welsh. 

3 A Liverpool doctor. See Letters, ii. 367. 

4 "Delightful it was" Carlyle writes to his wife on 
August 11, "on opening my trunk to find everywhere 
traces of my good 'coagitor's' [coadjutor's] care and 
love. Heaven reward thee, my clear-headed, warm- 
hearted, dearest little Screamikin ! " Life, ii. 165. 

5 The Steam-coaches were still novelties ; the first ex- 
perimental trip with a steam engine was on the Liverpool 
& Manchester railway in October, 1829. The celebra- 
tion of the opening of the road for regular steam travel 
and traffic was on Sept. 15, 1830, a memorable event 
made tragic by the death of Mr. Huskisson. 



8*! 1 x Oleum ricini. Go out to find Esbie : 
he calls on me. Confused family din- 
ner; do. tea. G. Johnstone again. Talk: 
to bed. 

9th Off on Monday morning. Shipped 
thro' the Mersey; coached thro' East- 
ham, Chester, Overton (in Wales) Ellesmere, 
Shrewsbury, Wolverhampton, Birmingham : 
attempt at tea there. Discover (not without 
laughter) the villainy of the Liverpool Coach- 
Bookers. Henley in Arden; Stratford on 
Avon (horses lost there); get in to sleep. 
Oxford at 3 in the morning. Out again there : 
chill but pleasant. Henley, Maidenhead &c. 
Arrive full of sulphur at the Whfite] Horse Cel- 
lar, Piccadilly: dismount at the Regent Circus, 
and am wheeled (not whirled) hither, 2 about 
half past 10; poor Jack waiting all the while 
at the Angel, Islington. Talk together when 
he returns; dine at an Eatinghouse among 
Frenchmen, one of whom ceases eating to 
hear me talk of the St. Simonians. Leave 
my card at the Lord Advocate's, 3 with 
promise to call next morning. Sulphurous 

1 The dates from the 8th to the 14th inclusive are 
wrong by a day in advance. 

2 To 6 Woburn Buildings, Tavistock Square, the 
dwelling of Edward Irving's brother George, where 
Dr. John Carlyle lodged. 

3 Jeffrey. 

13 193 


11th (Wednesday) Go to the Advocate's: 
am kindly received, the 
A. looking better than I expected : a Dr. 
Baron there (whom I knew not as such till 
after he was gone). Napier's Letter in the 
hands of the Postman. 1 Am advised to try 
Murray with my MS. rather ; get a letter to 
him j see him with difficulty ; send over my 
Papers, to have the answer affirmative or 
negative next Wednesday. A tall squinting 
man; not of the wisest aspect; seems to 
know me, and smiles on my description of 
Breck 2 (the dog! I fear he will make me 
greet on it yet) : the favour of the Ministry, 
through Jeffrey's interest, buoys me up with 
him. See the Badamses that evening (B. 
had already called on me very shortly after 
my arrival) : poor B. seemed flushed and to 
have been drinking; his Wife a true soul, 
talented, true, but girlish; her mother a 
gigantic French-woman, now Wife of one 
Kenny a Playwright. Look in upon the 
Montagues as I return : Procter standing 
at the door; 3 Mrs. M. in the dusk, colder 

1 Napier was Jeffrey's successor as editor of the Edin- 
burgh Review. His letter enclosed one of introduction of 
Carlyle to Mr. Rees, of the publishing house of Long- 
man & Co. 2 " Dreck," that is, Teufelsdreck. 

3 The Basil Montagus ; Procter, the poet who wrote 
under the pseudonym of Barry Cornwall, was their son- 
in-law. Carlyle's relations with the Montagus had be- 
gun during his visit to London with the Bullers in 1824. 
See Life, i. 120; Reminiscences, ii. 112, 127-130. 



than might have been expected, yet with 
professions enough. 1 

1 2th (Thursday) Go out to see about a Seal- 
cutter at Mrs. M.'s; am 
by her detained with a most vituperative his- 
tory of the Badams Bankrupt, or a cheat dis- 
covered. Seems to me all overcharged; at 
best common-place, vindictive, nowise mag- 
nanimous. Speaking of John, almost get 
provoked, yet do not. Alas ! \ all things go 
round and round ' there : old friends utterly 
gone there; I too am no longer necessary. 
The people to be pitied ; the ' noble lady ' is 
alone, with her so shewy Iety? Can say no- 
thing of the Seal; and now I have hardly 

1 See for the filling out of this and the preceding en- 
tries the letter to Mrs. Carlyle of that date. Life ii. 164. 
Carlyle had become acquainted with Mr. Badams, a 
friend of Irving, in 1824, and had spent two months with 
him in that year at Birmingham. " This man, one of 
the most sensible, clear-headed persons I have ever met 
with, seems also one of the kindest," is what he writes of 
him to his mother. Life, i. 229. "A most inventive, 
light-hearted, and genially gallant kind of man ; sadly 
eclipsed within the last five years, ill-married, plunged 
amid grand mining speculations, which were and showed 
themselves sound, but not till they had driven him to 
drink brandy instead of water, and next year to die mis- 
erably overwhelmed." Reminiscences, i. 93. 

2 The ' Noble Lady ' was Edward Irving's epithet 
for Mrs. Montagu. Irving had introduced Carlyle to 
the Montagus in 1824, and in his " Reminiscences of Ir- 
ving" Carlyle gives a vivid description of the Montagu 
household. Reminiscences, ii. 123-134. 



time remaining to write a most confused Let- 
ter to my Own, which I do in all sorrow at 
such loss of time, and the sight of such havoc 
and dismemberment as 6 years have brought. 
The Montagues are wicnderliche Menschen j 1 
worth what? 

13t. h (Friday) Out to Longman's with my 
Napier Letter. State to them 
my German Lit. History : they " decline the 
article," civilly enough. Shall I try them with 
Dreck if Murray fail ? Schwerlich. 2 On to the 
India House : see Strachey 3 and talk con- 
sentaneous Politics: invited to Sh[ooter's] Hill 
for Saturday. Returning call on Bowring, 4 
he is in the country, but coming and going. 
Steer over to Allan Cunningham's 5 at night. 
(Have a Letter from my little Hermitess which 
makes me glad and sad.) Allan as of old : 
full of honesty and loud talk; I promised 

l ' Strange people.' 2 Hardly. 

3 The Stracheys were old acquaintances. Mrs. 
Strachey was the sister of Mrs. Buller. Mr. Strachey 
was a Somersetshire gentleman, ex-Indian, an exam- 
iner in the India House. See Reminiscences, ii. 49, 102, 
124 et al. Often mentioned in Life. 

4 Dr., afterward Sir John, Bowring, a well-known radi- 
cal and man of letters ; described in a letter to Mrs. 
Carlyle, Life, ii. 172. 

5 At this date more or less a London celebrity, "a 
genuine, interesting man." "Solid Dumfries mason, 
with a surface polish," and a touch of native genius. 
For description of him, see Reminiscences, i. 175 ; ii. 169. 
See also Life, i. 220. 



something of dining there next week. Have 
bought this Book in the mg. 

14th Write to Goethe, to Buller, to Fraser. 
Off to Shooter's Hill. See Mrs. Ba- 
dams by the way. She has engaged Godwin 
to meet us at tea ; and countermanded him, 
and again talks of countermanding him for 
still a new night. Shooter's Hill looks as 
well as ever * : Strachey as talkative and full 
of vivacity as ever : his wife has an unhealthy, 
faded air; looks rather afraid of me, yet 
friendly and earnest. Kitty 2 is Mrs Phillips, 
a mother, and almost a widow (as I hear). 

Foolish Miss whom the Unregene- 

rate demolishes with a shovel-hat. 3 Awake 
in the country with rooks (on the 15 th or Sun- 
day), beautiful morning ; views of the Thames 
and Essex; talk, dinner; return (forgetting 
my umbrella) by Woolwich, Greenwich and 
the river to Tower Stairs ; thence home, where 
a Letter lies from Bowring ' to breakfast on 
Tuesday.' Shave, wash, drink tea ; argue on 
the everlasting ' spirit of the time ' with Jack ; 

1 " I have seldom seen a pleasanter place, a panorama 
of green, flowery, clean, and decorated country all round ; 
an umbrageous little Park, with roses, gardens ; a modest- 
ly excellent House." Reminiscences, ii. 124. 

2 Kitty Kirkpatrick, cousin of Mrs. Strachey, with 
whom she had been living at the time of Carlyle's visit 
to London in 1824. She is described charmingly in 
Reminiscences, ii. 117, 125. 

3 Cf. letter to Mrs. Carlyle, Life, ii, 170. 



bolt off, and write thus far: will now read 
my Goody's Letter again, and therewith Gute 
nachtf (15 th 10 24 o'clock at night — up 
stairs.) — 

15 th (believe I misdated on Sunday, and 
that Monday was the i5 l . h ) Went to 
breakfast with the Jeffreys : all very kind. 
The Adv. entered in his yellow night-gown, 
with his greyish face, clear roguish eyes, and 
said : " Why Charly * I've got cholera I be- 
lieve." Nichts welter passim, except that I 
got a frank for Goody. Empson 3 not at home. 
The Seal-cutter not to be found (in Warwick 
Court). Write to my Jeannie and my Mother : 
barely in time for the Post. Go to Irving's to 
tea; talk of St. Simonism, etc. ; Irving at heart 
the old friend. To dine with Drummond 4 
(Banker) in his company on Friday. Off for 
Southampton Row to meet Godwin. Eheu ! 
find there the French woman with Mrs. God- 
win, presently afterwards the Badamses. Then 
a multifarious collection of Dilettanti, Play- 

l His wife Charlotte. 2 " Nothing further occurred." 

3 Jeffrey's son-in-law. See Reminiscences, ii. 269; and 
Correspondence of Goethe and Carlyle, p. 282. 

4 Henry Drummond, a worldly mystic, the most im- 
portant figure in the sect that grew up around Irving, 
and the chief of the Apostles of the Catholic Apostolic 
Church, which still (1898) survives with a faint and what 
seems like an expiring life in America and in Germany, 
as well as in England. See Reminiscences, ii. 187, 198 ; 
Life, ii. 177. 



wrights and Nondescripts : G. has in the 
meanwhile arrived. A little thickset man, 
with bushy eyebrows (white), grey open eyes, 
large coarse nose and chin ; bald, hoary, yet 
brisk, and hearty of aspect, tho' old. He 
speaks little: what he says has a certain 
epigrammatic effect-character. Ask him, after 
some skirmishing about the bush, what he 
thinks of Literary London now as compared 
with the same object of old. He answers 
that old men always prefer the bygone time; 
that many of his friends are now gone ; but 
that on the whole the old was the best. 
' Deeper questions were mooted.' I des- 
cribe to him somewhat of my notions about 
cooperation, proselytism and so forth: he 
looks gratified, seems beginning to talk, when 
they force him up to — play whist, and I only 
see him for the rest of the night ! A furious 
jingle of pianos ensues ; Rossini's operatic me- 
lodies almost driving me deaf; and so from 
amid the chaotic jargoning, I glide off, seeing 
symptoms of a Supper m. the other room. God- 
win has not impressed me with very high no- 
tions of him : yet I still see him with his quick 
short laugh (in the end of which lies a chirl, 
as there did in Gilbert Burns's), parson's black 
coat, firm position in his chair, and general 
handfest 1 appearance. Will try to see him 
again under better circumstances. — He drinks 
l" Sturdy." 



* strong green tea ' by himself.— After ten at 
night, John brings up a certain young Mr. 
Glen, of whom much might be made : a figura- 
tive mind, eager for insight ; self-helping: but 
very talkative and confused ; hovering as yet 
between light and darkness. 1 Bed at twelve. 

16th (whereon I now write). Awoke some 
time before seven ; sickish, unslept ; 
must have drugs: am for breakfasting with 
Bowring. Not very well. 

27 th Have some time ago discontinued 
this Journal-writing; my Wife's Let- 
ters 2 being properly a Journal. This afternoon 
I am just returned from Enfield. 3 Bibliopolic 
speculation languid enough : i nothing mov- 
ing upon wheels ' : ach Nichis / 

Is all Education properly an unfolding: 
does all Knowledge already exist in the mind, 
and Education only uncover it? There is 
something in this: but not what is here (so 
ill) expressed. 

1 " Glen was a young graduate of Glasgow, studying 
law in London, of very considerable though utterly con- 
fused talent. Ultimately went mad, and was boarded 
in a farmhouse near Craigenputtock, within reach of 
us, where in seven or eight years he died." Life, ii. 200, n. 
See also pp. 225, 278, 403, and Letters, i. 336. 

2 His letters to his wife. 

3 Where the Badams's lived. 



Vision of all the suits of " Clothes " you 
have ever worn ! — 

October Wife arrived ten days ago ; we here 
1 th quietly enough (in 4 Ampton Street) , 
and the world jogging on at the old 
rate. 1 Jack must be by this time in Paris. 
Teufelsdreck, after various perplexed destinies, 
returned to me, and now lying safe in his box. 
There must he continue, till the Book-trade 
revive a little ; if forever, what matter ? The 
Book contents me little ; yet perhaps there is 
material in it : in any case I did my best. — 
To see Gustave d'Eichthal 2 the St. Simonian 
this night ! 

l"The beggarly history of poor Sartor among the 
Blockheadisms is not worth my recording ... In short, 
finding that whereas I had got ^100 (if memory serve) 
for Schiller six or seven years before, and for Sartor * at 
least thrice as good,' I could not only not get ^200, but 
even get no ' Murray ' or the like to publish it on ' half 
profits,' . . . I said, 'We will make it No then ; wrap up 
our MS. ; wait till this ' Reform Bill ' uproar abate; and 
see, and give our brave little Jeannie a sight of this big Ba- 
bel, which is so altered since I saw it last (in 1824-25) ! ' 
—She came right willingly ; and had, in spite of her ill- 
health, which did not abate but the contrary, an interest- 
ing, cheery, and, in spite of our poor arrangements, a 
really pleasant winter here. We lodged in Ampton 
Street, Gray's Inn Lane, clean and decent pair of rooms, 
and quiet decent people . . . reduced from wealth to 
keeping lodgings, and prettily resigned to it; really 
good people." Reminiscences, i. 92. 

2 ' ' The most interestin g acquaintances we have m ade, 
wrote Mrs. Carlyle in December, 1831, " are the St. Si- 
monians . . . Gustave d'Eichthal is a creature to 



Their Reform Bill lost (on Saturday morn- 
ing at six o'clock) by a majority of 41. 1 The 
Politicians will have it, the people must rise. 
The People will do nothing half so foolish — 
for the present. London seems altogether 
quiet (however, I will go out and see) ; here 
they are afraid of Scotland, in Scotland of us. 
' Spanish banditti ' — the sign of a general 
apprehensiveness. — Poor Jeffrey very ill, but 
not dangerously. 

On Saturday saw Sir J. Macintosh (at Jef- 
frey's), and looked at and listened to him tho' 
without speech. A broadish, middle-sized, 
gray-headed man; well dressed and with a 
plain courteous bearing; grey intelligent (un- 
healthy yellow-whited) eyes, in which plays a 

love at first sight — so gentle and trustful and earnest- 
looking, ready to do and suffer all for his faith." Life, 
ii. 224. 

Gustave d'Eichthal had a friendly acquaintance with 
Emerson as well as with the Carlyles. See Letters, ii. 113. 

On Emerson's first visit to Carlyle, at Craigenputtock, 
in 1833, he brought to him from Rome a letter from 
d'Eichthal. See Emerson 's English Traits, p. 18, where, 
however, the name of d'Eichthal is not mentioned. 

1 It was between seven and eight o'clock, in the morn- 
ing of Saturday, the 8th of October, after an exciting 
debate for five successive nights, that the House of 
Lords rejected the Reform Bill, which had passed the 
Commons on the 21st of September, by a majority of 
one hundred and nine. Carlyle's lack of interest in a 
matter of such grave concern to the nation, and one 
which was stirring the people more deeply than they had 
been stirred for many years, is noticeable as an illustra- 
tion of his engrossment with things of still deeper import. 



dash of cautions vivacity (uncertain whether 
Fear or latent Ire ; remember old Dr. Flem- 
ing's 1 ) ; triangular unmeaning nose; business 
mouth and chin : on the whole, a sensible, 
official air, not without a due spicing of hy- 
pocrisy and something of Pedantry — both no 
doubt involuntary. The man is a whig Philo- 
sopher and Politician, such as the time yields, 
our best of that sort, — which will soon be ex- 
tinct. — He was talking mysteriously with 
with other " Hon. Members," about " what 
was to be done." — Something a la Dogberry 
the thing looked to me ; tho' I deny not that 
it is a serious conjuncture ; only believe that 
any change has some chance to be for the 
better, and so see it all with composure. 

Meanwhile what were the true duty of a 
man; were it to stand utterly aloof from Poli- 
tics (not ephemeral only, for that of course, 
but generally from all speculation about so- 
cial systems &c. &c.) ; or is not perhaps the 
very want of this time, an infinite want of 
Governors, of Knowledge how to govern it- 
self? — Canst thou in any measure spread 
abroad Reverence over the hearts of men ? 
That were a far higher task than any other. 
Is it to be done by Art ; or are men's minds as 
yet shut to Art, and open only at best to ora- 

1" A good old Dr. Fleming, 'a clergyman of mark* 
informer years in Edinburgh." Reminiscences, ii. 103. 



tory; not fit for a Meister, but only for a 
better and better Teufelsdreck / Dentt und 
schweig 1 1 

The stupidity I labour under is extreme. 
All dislocated, prostrated, obfuscated ; cannot 
even speak, much less write. What a dogged 
piece of toil lies before me, before I get afoot 
again! Set doggedly to it then. 

When Goethe and Schiller say or insinuate 
that Art is higher than Religion, do they 
mean perhaps this: That whereas Religion 
represents (what is the essence of Truth for 
men) the Good as infinitely (the word is em- 
phatic) different from the Evil, but sets them 
in a state of hostility (as in Heaven and 
Hell), — Art likewise admits and inculcates 
this quite infinite difference ; but without hos- 
tility, with peacefulness ; like the difference 
of two Poles which ca?inot coalesce, yet do 
not quarrel, nay should not quarrel for both 
are essential to the whole ? In this way is 
Goethe's morality to be considered as a higher 
(apart from its comprehensiveness, nay uni- 
versality) than has hitherto been promul- 
gated ? — Sehr einseitig / 2 Yet perhaps there 
is a glimpse of the truth here. 

Mary Wollstonecraft's Life by Godwin : 

1 ** Think and be silent." 

2 " Very one-sided," or "partial " view. 



an Ariel imprisoned in a brickbat ! It is a 
real tragedy, and of the deepest: sublimely 
virtuous endowment ; in practice misfortune, 
suffering, death, — by Destiny and also by 
Desert. — An English Mignon; Godwin an 
honest Boor that loves her, but cannot guide 
or save her. — Ever wondrous is the pilgrim- 
age of man ! — 

Shalll write about Milliner? — Gott weiss. 1 

1 Uh October. Last night, saw Mill and 
d'Eichthal (Brother of Gus- 
tave the St. Simonian), and discoursed largely 
upon men and things. M. continues to please 
me. — 

Strange tendency everywhere noticeable 
to speculate on Men not on Man. Another 
branch of the Mechanical Temper. Vain 
hope to make mankind happy by Politics! 
You cannot drill a regiment of knaves into a 
regiment of honest men, enregiment and or- 
ganise them as cunningly as you will. Give 
us the honest men, and the well-ordered regi- 
ment comes of itself. Reform one man (re- 

l " God knows." Carlyle had already, in his article 
on " German Playwrights," 1829, written at considerable 
length about Milliner, of whom he had said, "no Play- 
wright of this age makes such a noise as Miillner" . . . 
but " we must take liberty to believe . . . that he ' is no 
dramatist. ' " 



form thy own inner man), it is more than 
scheming out reforms for a nation. 1 

Hear talk of a " Convention of Delegates " 
about to assemble from all the four winds 
here at London, to expedite the Reform Bill. 
— Some noises in the streets last night ; but 
as yet no reports of rioting : general or serious 
rioting for the present I do not expect. 

Now to Milliner; not to write upon him ; 
he is not worth that : but to scrawl upon him 
and get him off my hands. Allons 7 — Eheu! 

22 nd October. The principle of Laissez-faire 
fast verging, as I read the 
symptoms, to a consummation. Let people 
go on, each without guidance, each striving 
only to gain advantage for himself, the result 
will be this : Each, endeavouring by " com- 
petition " to outstrip the others, will en- 
deavour by all arts to manufacture an article 
(not better) only cheaper and showier than 
his neighbour. As we see in all things ! A 
newly built house is more like a tent than a 
house ; no Table that I fall in with here can 

1 " To reform a world, to reform a nation, no wise man 
will undertake, and all but foolish men know that the 
only solid, though a far slower reformation, is what each 
begins and perfects on himself." With these words 
Carlyle had ended his paper on " Signs of the Times," 
in 1829. 



stand on its legs; a pair of good Shoes is 
what I have not been able to procure for the 
last ten years. The Tradesman, in every de- 
partment, has become an eye-servant ; and 
could not help it, without being a martyr, — 
as indeed all men should be. 

Hence too comes the so incessant fluctua- 
tion in the modes of things. Is the taste of 
the article better ? Its durableness increased ? 
Its end more completely answered? Its 
utility in any way extended ? No : generally 
altogether the reverse. The childishness of 
men (often it is their bad passions) must be 
ministered to; that is the surest course for 
getting payment : so the workman turns his 
whole effort in that direction. 

But if such is the condition of things in 
regard to the Useful which is said to promote 
itself what will it be in regard to the Beauti- 
ful, the Moral, which is of no value till once 
it be had posse ssion of! Look round on all 
hands and see — in the Church, in the Arts, 
in Literature. {This last part due to Mill.) 

Expect not a pair of tolerable "shoes" 
(even tolerably made ones) here ! x They are 

1 Even in later life Carlyle used to complain humor- 
ously that no tolerable shoes could be found in London ; 
and to declare that his only pair of well-made shoes came 
from an old shoemaker in Dumfries, that he had worn 
them for years, ' had them upper-leathered and under- 
leathered,' and they would last a long while yet. 



all made incalculably too wide in the instep : 
thou puttest them on (and payest for them) 
easily ; they pinch and becorn thy toes all 
the time thou wearest them ; and daily thou 
growlest over the " Competition Principle," 
exemplified here, as in all other provinces 
lowest and highest. — Important remark! 

One problem lies before man in all ages 
and places; Ascertain what thou canst do, 
and do it. Here in London, lies a second 
problem often harder than the first : having 
done thy work, convince the world that thou 
hast done it. 

John told me of having seen in Holborn a 
man walking steadily along with some six 
Baskets all piled above each other, his Name 
and Address written in large characters on 
each, so that he exhibited a stature of some 
twelve feet, and so by the six separate an- 
nouncements had his existence sufficiently 
proclaimed. The trade of this man was 
Basket-making ; but he had found it needful 
to study a quite new Trade, that of walking 
with six (or twelve) baskets on his head in a 
crowded street. 

In like manner : Colburn and Bentley the 
Booksellers are known to expend Ten thou- 
sand pounds annually (I had this from Dilke, 1 

l Editor and proprietor of the Athenceum, father of Sir 
Charles Dilke. 



who had it from their man of business) on 
what they call " advertising," more commonly 
called puffing. 

Puffing (which is simply the second trade, 
that of Basket-carrying) flourishes in all coun- 
tries ; but London is the true scene of it ; 
having this one quality beyond all other cities : 
a quite immeasurable size. It is rich also, 
stupid and ignorant, beyond example ; thus, 
in all respects, the true Goshen of Quacks. 

Every man I meet with mourns over this 
state of matters ; no one thinks it remediable ; 
you must do as the others do, or they will get 
the start of you, or tread you under foot. 
" All true, Mr. Carlyle ; but "— I say: " All 
true, Mr. Carlyle; and" — The first begin- 
ning of a remedy is that some one believe a 
remedy possible; believe that if he cannot 
live by truth, then he can die by it. Dost 
thou believe it ? Then is the new Era 
begun I 1 

In a better time this huge monster of a city 
will contract itself into some third part of its 

1 Of Dilke " I have little to say, except that the man is 
very tolerant, hospitable ; not without a sense for the good, 
but with little power to follow it, and defy the evil. That is 
the temper in which I find many here ; they deplore the 
prevalence of dishonesty, quackery, and stupidity; many 
do it (like Dilke) with apparent heartiness and sorrow ; but 
to believe that it can be resisted, that it will and shall be 
resisted, herein poor Teufelsdreck is well-nigh singular." 
Letters, i. 319. 

1 4 209 


present bulk. The Landed People have 
almost no business here except incidentally ; 
they should be governing in their respective 
districts; not here flaunting and flirting. 
Were the quite superfluous population of 
London shipped off, it would shrink to the 
third part of its bulk, and be still large 

Potatoes (one penny per lb.) are exactly 
ten times the price they are in Annandale. 
(Of their quality I say nothing.) So is it in 
all things, in a less or greater ratio : so many 
mortals living together hamper and hinder 
one another in innumerable ways. 

How men are hurried here ; how they are 
haunted and terrifically chased into double 
quick speed; so that in self-defence they 
must not stay to look at one another ! Miser- 
able is the scandal mongery and evil idle 
speaking of the country population : more 
frightful still the total ignorance and mutual 
heedlessness of these poor souls in populous 
city pent. " Each passes on, quick transient ; 
regarding not the other or his woes." Each 
must button himself together, and take no 
thought (not even for evil) of his neighbour. 
There in their little cells divided by partitions 
of brick or board, they sit strangers, unknow- 
ing, unknown ; like Passengers in some huge 



Ship, each within his own cabin : Alas ! and 
the Ship is Life, and the voyage is from Eter- 
nity to Eternity ! 

Everywhere there is the most crying 
want of Government, a true all-ruining 
anarchy : no one has any knowledge of Lon- 
don in which he lives; it is a huge aggre- 
gate of little systems, each of which is again 
a small Anarchy, the members of which do 
not work together but scramble against each 

The Soul, what can properly be called the 
Soul, lies dead in the bosom of man ; starting 
out only in mad ghastly Nightwalkings (e. g. 
" the gift of tongues x ") : Ignorance eclipses 
all things with its owlet wings; man walks 
he knows not whither; walks and wanders 
till he walk into the jaws of Death, and is 
there devoured. — Nevertheless, God is in it : 
here, even here, is the Revelation of the In- 
finite in the Finite; a majestic Poem (tragic, 
comic or epic), couldst thou but read it and 
recite it ! Watch it then ; study it, catch the 
secret of it, and proclaim the same in such 
accent as is given thee. — Alas ! the spirit is 
willing, but the flesh is weak. 

Milliner is not written or perhaps worth 
writing; however the rude materials of it are 

1 " In the course of the winter, sad things had occurred 
in Irving's history. His enthusiastic studies and preach- 



on paper, and lie tied up with packthread, 
abiding their time. — I am now to write 
something {what thing ?) for the Edin r Review. 
Two subjects I have; both distant, both 
vague. Sad struggle I shall have! "On 
man," " On Authors " : which ? Or neither ? 

Serious thoughts are rising in me about the 
possibility of attempting a Course of Lectures 
here. 3 The subject should be " Things in 
general " (under some more dignified title) : 
but as yet the ground is quite unknown to 
me ; the whole process towards the cathedra, 
even much of the process there lies hidden. 
Let me look and study. — 

What are the uses, what is the special pro- 
vince of oral teaching at present ? Wherein 
superior to the written or printed mode, and 
when? — For one thing, as I can see, Lon- 
don is fit for no higher Art than that of Ora- 
tory: they understand nothing of Art; 
scarcely one of them anything at all. — But 
hast thou any Eloquence ? Ja wokl, ein klein 

ings were passing into the practically 'miraculous'; 
and to me the most doleful of all phenomena, the ' Gift 
of Tongues ' had fairly broken out among the crazed 
weakliest of his wholly rather dim and weakly flock." 
Reminiscences, ii. 204. 

1 It was not till the spring of 1837, nearly six years 
after the date of the entry, that Carlyle gave his first 
Course of Lectures in London. His "Things in Gen- 
eral "had dwindled to ' ' German Literature. ' ' See Life, 
iii. 97-105. 


weniges, 1 were my tongue once untacked. Ach, 
dass es so ware 1 2 — 

Have been reading in Hazlitt's Table 
Talk: an incessant chew-chewing, the Nut 
never cracked, nothing but teeth broken and 
bleeding gums. The man has thought 
much ; even intently and with vigor : but he 
has discovered nothing; been able to believe 
nothing. One other sacrifice to the Time ! 3 — 
Ritson's Fairy Tales and Old Ballads worth 
almost nothing: thickheaded discourteous 
boor of an Editor, and almost nothing of the 
smallest moment to edit. — 

— On Thursday night last (this is Monday, 
the 24 th Oct! 1 831) dined with Fonblanque 
Editor of the Examiner. An honourable Rad- 
ical; might be something better: London- 
bred; limited, by education more than by 
nature. — Something metallic in the tone of 
his voice (like that of the Professor Austin) : 
for the rest, a tall, loose, lankhaired, wrinkly, 
wintry, vehement looking flail of a man. I 

1 " Perhaps so, a little bit." 

2 " Ah, would it were so ! " 

3 " How many a poor Hazlitt must wander on God's 
verdant earth, like the Unblest on burning deserts : pas- 
sionately dig wells, and draw up only the dry quicksand ; 
believe that he is seeking Truth, yet only wrestle among 
endless Sophisms, doing desperate battle as with spectre- 
hosts ; and die and make no sign." ' Characteristics.' 
Essays, iv. 28. 



reckon him the best of the Fourth Estate 
now extant in Britain. — Shall see him again. 1 

Allan Cunningham with us, last night. 
Jane calls him a genuine Dumfriesshire ma- 
son still ; and adds that it is delightful to see 
a genuine man of any sort. Allan was, as 
usual, full of Scottish-anecdotic talk. Right 
by instinct j has no principles or creed that I 
can see : but excellent old Scottish habits of 
character : an interesting man. — 

— Walter Scott left Town yesterday on his 
way to Naples. He is to proceed from Ply- 
mouth in a Frigate, which the Government 
have given him a place in. Much run after 
here (it seems) ; but he is old and sick and 
cannot enjoy it : has had two shocks of Palsy, 
and seems altogether in a precarious way. — 
To me he is and has been an object of very 
minor interest for many many years ; the Nov- 
el-wright of his time, its favourite child, and 
therefore an almost worthless one. Yet is there 
something in his deep recognition of the 
worth of the Past, perhaps better than any- 
thing he has expressed about it : into which I 

1 Cf. Letters, ii. 359. Albany Fonblanque was editor 
of The Examiner from 1830 to 1847. He was in the main 
a disciple of Bentham ; and by his wit and vigorous in- 
telligence he secured a wide hearing. His England un- 
der Seven Administrations (3 vols. 1837), a selection of his 
editorial articles, is a good record of current opinion 
during the reign of William IV. 



do not yet fully see. — Have never spoken 
with him (tho' I might sometimes, without 
great effort) ; and now probably never shall. 

What an advantage has the Pulpit, where 
you address men already arranged to hear 
you, and in a vehicle which long use has 
rendered easy : how infinitely harder when 
you have all to create, not the ideas only 
and the sentiments, but the symbols and the 
mood of mind ! Nevertheless in all cases, 
where man addresses man, on his spiritual 
interests especially, there is a sacredness, 
could we but evolve it, and think and speak 
in it. — Consider better what it is thou mean- 
est by a symbol; how far thou hast insight 
into the nature thereof. — 

— Is Art in the old Greek sense possible 
for man at this late era ? Or were not (per- 
haps) the Founder of a Religion our true 
Homer at present? — The whole Soul must 
be illuminated, made harmonious: Shake- 
speare seems to have had no religion, but his 
Poetry. — 

— Where is Tomorrow resident even now ? 
Somewhere, or somehow, it is, doubt not of 
that. On the common theory thou mayest 
think thyself into madness on this question. 

Society I have for some years been wont 
to divide into four classes : Noblemen, Gen- 



tlemen, Gigmen, and Men. When is the De- 
fensio Gigmanica to make its appearance ? 1 

Priest-ridden, wife-ridden, plague-ridden, 

Who escapes his lot ? 
Bearing, forbearing, paying, obeying, 

Will ye, will ye not. 
Child-ridden, tremble at my Doll's pouting : 

Fortune, spare me that ! 

Richard Brothers (1798); a most wonder- 
ful madman; believes himself to be the prom- 
ised Deliverer of the Jews ; writes a " Letter 
to Miss Cott the recorded Daughter of King 
David and Future Queen of the Hebrews." 
(which I see to-day in the Brit. Museum.) — 
Deals exceedingly in study of the Scriptures. 
— "Dated from Islington Madhouse March 
the 18* 1798." — What became of him 
ultimately? 2 

1 The notion of the gigman, " one who kept a gig," 
as the type of British Respectability and Philistinism had 
struck Carlyle's sense of humour, and recurs often about 
this time in his writing. The source of it is given in a 
note in his essay on Richter (1830). " In Thurtell's 
trial (says the Quarterly Review) occurred the following 
colloquy : ' Q. What sort of person was Mr. Weare. A. 
He was always a respectable person. Q. What do you 
mean by respectable ? A. He kept a gig.' Since then 
we have seen a ' Defensio Gigmanica, or apology for the 
Gigmen of Great Britain ' composed not without elo- 
quence, and which we hope one day to prevail on our 
friend, a man of some whims, to give to the public." 
Essays, iii. 32 ; cf. id. iv. 150. 

2 Brothers was born in 1757, and lived, maintaining 



November 2«d- How few people speak for 
Truth's sake, even in its 
humblest modes! I return from Enfield, 
where I have seen Lamb &c &c. Not one 
of that class will tell you a straightfor- 
ward story, or even a credible one, about 
any matter under the sun. All must be 
perked up into epigrammatic contrasts, star- 
tling exaggerations, claptraps that will get a 
plaudit from the galleries ! I have heard a 
hundred anecdotes about W. Hazlitt (for ex- 
ample) ; yet cannot, by never so much cross- 
questioning even, form to myself the smallest 
notion of how it really stood with him. — 
Wearisome, inexpressibly wearisome to me is 
that sort of clatter : it is not walking (to the 
end of time you would never advance, for 
these persons indeed have no whither); 
it is not bounding and frisking in graceful 
natural joy; it is dancing — a St. Vitus 
dance. Heighho ! — 

Charles Lamb I sincerely believe to be in 
some considerable degree insane. A more 
pitiful, ricketty, gasping, staggering, stam- 
mering Tom fool I do not know. 1 He is 

his character as madman, enthusiast, and prophet, 
till 1824. According to the Dictionary of National Biog- 
raphy (1886), "the believers in Brothers are not yet ex- 

1 Time did not change Carlyle's judgment of Lamb 
(see Reminiscences, i. 94), but added to it, "yet something 
too of humane, ingenuous, pathetic, sportfully much- 



witty by denying truisms, and abjuring good 
manners. His speech wriggles hither and 
thither with an incessant painful fluctuation ; 
not an opinion in it or a fact or even a phrase 
that you can thank him for : more like a con- 
vulsion fit than natural systole and diastole. 
— Besides he is now a confirmed shameless 
drunkard ; asks vehemently for gin-and-water 
in strangers' houses ; tipples till he is utterly 
mad, and is only not thrown out of doors 
because he is too much despised for taking 
such trouble with him. 1 Poor Lamb ! Poor 

1 Knowing what we now know of Lamb's life this 
judgment appears unsympathetic and hard. But it was 
not unjust to Lamb as he displayed himself to Carlyle. 
In October of this year, 1831, Carlyle and his wife went 
to stay for three or four days with Mr. and Mrs. Badams 
at Enfield. Mr. Alexander Carlyle narrates in a letter 
to me an incident which took place during this visit : 
" Lamb was present one evening at supper. The Car- 
lyles were supping on oat-meal porridge, their usual dish. 
Lamb began to quiz Mrs. Carlyle about her queer dish, 
and ended by dipping his spoon into her bowl, saying 
' Let us taste the stuff anyhow.' Mrs. Carlyle, greatly 
annoyed at such ill-breeding and familiarity on the part 
of a person she had not met before, gave him a cutting 
retort to the effect that, ' your astonishment at my por- 
ridge cannot exceed my surprise at your manners,' and 
had her bowl removed." In writing to her mother soon 
afterward, she said, ' ' Some of them [London literary 
men], C. Lamb for instance, would not be tolerated in 
any society out of England." Carlyle, too, referred to the 
incident in a letter to his brother, Dr. Carlyle, 13 Nov., 
1831, " He [Lamb] also loudly criticized our Scotch por- 
ridge that evening, and being swept away, as a trouble- 
some insect should, got more and more obstreperous." 



England where such a despicable abortion is 
named genius! — He said: There are just 
two things I regret in English History ; first 
that Guy Faux's Plot did not take effect 
(there would have been so glorious an explo- 
sion); second, that the Royalists did not 
hang Milton (then we might have laughed at 
them) : &c. &c. Armer Teufel! 1 

News of wild riots from Bristol : many 
lives lost, much mischief much scandal per- 
petrated. The Noodles, if they mind not, 
will have an old house about their ears. Sir 
C. Wetherell affirmed and re-affirmed that 
" there was a reaction, that the people had 
ceased to care for reform " &c. &c: argu- 
ment, evidence, was of no use; the man's 
brain was not to be reached that way; so 
the Rascality took another : that of knock- 
in a letter now in my possession, undated, but written 
probably not far from this time, from Mrs. Procter to 
Mrs. Jameson, is the following narrative: "Charles 
Lamb dined here on Monday at five, and by seven was 
so tipsy he could not stand. Martin Burney carried 
him from one room to the other like a sack of coals, he 
insisting upon singing ' diddle, diddle, diddle dumpty, 
my son John.' He slept until ten and then awoke more 
tipsy than before, and between his fits of beating Mar- 
tin Burney kept saying, ' please God I never enter this 
cursed house again.' He wrote a note the next day beg- 
ging pardon, and asking when he may come again. — 
Poor Miss Lamb is ill." 
1 " Poor devil." 



ing it in with clubs. 1 — O the wondrous wild 
ways of this world : how knaves and noodles 
rise to the summit, and huge movements of 
society must depend on their good pleasure, 
on their best insight! — Parvd sapientid, 2 in- 
deed ! Why it is Dementia; even with that it 
will go on. 

Dull, Dull ! yet have a " striking Article " 
to write ! I mean to try if I can write a 
true one, let it strike or not : would I were 
able. The fight must be unspeakable first. 
Gott hilfmirf 

All the world is in apprehension about the 

1 Sir Charles Wetherell, Recorder of Bristol, had been 
a determined opponent of the Reform Bill in the House 
of Commons. This had made him unpopular in Bristol, 
where on the 29th of October he opened the City Ses- 
sions. The Mansion House where he took up his resi- 
dence was attacked by a mob. Dealt with too timidly 
at first, the violence of the mob increased, and for two 
days Bristol was given over to arson and plunder. 

2 These words are from Chancellor Oxenstiern's 
famous saying to his son, as it is usually cited, /, mi fili, 
vide quamparva sapientia mundus regitur, " Go, my son, 
see with how little wisdom the world is governed." The 
correct form of the saying seems to be, An nescis, mi fili, 
quantilla prudentia mundus regatur ? ' ' Do you not know, 
my son, with how little good sense the world may be 
governed? " The son was hesitating, on account of his 
inexperience, to accept a mission to which he had been 
appointed. Buchmann, Gefiugelte Wb'rte, 1884, S. 310. 
4 Thou little thinkest,' said Selden, ' what a little foolery 
governs the world.' 



Cholera Pestilence ; * which indeed seems ad- 
vancing towards us with a frightful, slow, 
unswerving constancy. For myself I cannot 
say that- it costs me great suffering: we are 
all appointed once to die ; Death is the grand 
sum-total of it all. — 

Generally now it seems to me as if this 
Life were but the inconsiderable portico of 
man's Existence, which afterwards in new, 
mysterious environment were to be con- 
tinued without end. I say, ' seems to me; * 
for the proof of it were hard to state by Logic; 
it is the fruit of Faith ; begins to show itself 
with more and more decisiveness, the instant 
you have dared to say : Be it either way ! 
The ho he Bedeutung des Entsagen! 1 — But on 

1 This was the last great visitation of cholera to Eng- 
land. It was a blessing in disguise, for it compelled at- 
tention to the public health, which led to the sanitary 
measures that have gradually made England the best 
protected country in the world against pestilence and 
epidemic disease. For the wisdom by which these mea- 
sures were devised and carried out, England is mainly in- 
debted to the venerable, still living, Sir John Simon, 
K.C.B., who had charge of them as the Medical Officer 
of the Privy Council. 

2 "The deep significance of renunciation." ' The great 
doctrine of Entsagen,' as Carlyle calls it in his essay on 
Novalis (1829) was one that he had learned for himself 
from life, but for which Goethe had given him the word. 
" Well did the wisest of our time write : ' It is only with 
Renunciation (Entsagen) that Life, properly speaking, 
can be said to begin." Sartor Resartus, Book ii. ch. ix. 
This word Entsagen Carlyle had cut upon a seal, which 
he and his wife frequently used. An engraving of the 



the whole, our conception of Immortality 
(as Dreck too has it) 1 depends on that of 
Time ; which latter is the deepest belonging 
to Philosophy, and the one perhaps wherein 
modern Philosophy has earned its best tri- 
umph. Believe that there properly is no 
Space and no Time, how many contradic- 
tions become reconciled ! — 2 

" Sports " are all gone from among men : 
there is now no holiday either for rich or 
poor. Hard toiling, then hard drinking, or 
hard fox-hunting : this is not the era of sport, 
but of martyrdom and persecution. Will the 
new morning never dawn? — It requires a 
certain vigour of the imagination, and of the 
social faculties before Amusement, popular 
Sport, can exist; which vigour at this era is 
all but total inanimation. Nay, you have to 
argue and redargue (with most men) before 
they will admit that it is not total. — Do but 
think of the Christmas Carols and Games ; 
the Abbots of Unreason, the Maypoles &c 
&c! Then look at your Manchesters on 
Saturday ; and on Sunday ! — 

" Education " is beyond being so much as 

seal is in Early Letters of Jane Welsh Carlyle, etc. Ed- 
ited by David G. Ritchie, London, 1889. 

1 In Book iii. ch. viii of Sartor. 

2 " Time and Space are but quiddities, not entities." 
Essays, i. 143. 



despised : we must praise it when it is not 
Zteducation, or an utter annihilation of what 
it professes to foster. The best-educated man 
you will often find to be the Artizan, at all 
rates the man of Business. For why ? He 
has put forth his hand, and operated on Na- 
ture ; must actually attain some true insight 
or he cannot live. — The worst-educated man 
is usually your man of Fortune. He has not 
put forth his hand upon anything, except 
upon his Bell-rope. Your scholar proper, 
generally too your so-called man of Letters, 
is a thing with clearer vision — thro' the hun- 
dredth part of an eye. A Burns is infinitely 
better educated than a Byron. — 1 

Authors must unite; must form themselves 
into a Corporation, into a Church. It is one of 
my prophecies that they one day will. In this 
present race there is not virtue enough to form 
a Drinking Club. But what then? Other races 
and innumerable centuries are coming. — 

A common persuasion among serious ill- 
informed persons that the end of the world is 
at hand : Henry Drummond, E. Irving, and 
all that class. — So was it at the beginning of 
the Christian era ; say rather, at the termina- 
tion of the Pagan one. 

1 The thoughts in the preceding paragraph are devel- 
oped in a passage near the beginning of Carlyle's article 
on " Corn-Law Rhymes," which appeared in the Edin- 
burgh Review in 1832. 



Which is the most ignorant creature of his 
class even in Britain ? Generally speaking, 
the Cockney, the London-bred man; and for 
reasons. He has no Libraries, no schools, no 
clergy : nothing but a workshop, where indeed 
he is the expertest of men. — In literature, think 
of Heraud, Lamb, P., 1 &c. &c. — What does 
the Cockney boy know of the muffin he eats ? 
Simply that a hawker brings it to the door, 
and charges a penny for it. The country 
youth sees it grow in the fields, in the mill, in 
the Bake house. Thus of all things, pertain- 
ing to the Life of man. 

November 4t. h Yesterday reading Strutt's 
1831. Games and Brand's Popular 

A?itiquities in the British Mu- 
seum. Both good solid serviceable Books. — 
Playing-cards commonly said to have been 
introduced in the time of Charles VI. (the 
mad Dauphin & King) of France ; to appear- 
ance erroneously ; for they are mentioned by 
some court-officer of his predecessor. The 
first law against them is in Spain. Primero 
a Spanish name; spades was originally espada, 
and had the figure of a sword. Probably 
came from the East in the Crusade times ; as 
Chess then or earlier did. — Strange old in- 
ventions ! who was the author of them ? — 
Merelles called also (in Shakespeare for 

1 The initial probably stands for Procter. 


instance) nine men's morrice is the game I 
have played at fifty times in boyhood under 
the title of Corsicrown (cross i' the crown) ; 
or rather our poor Corsicrown played with 
only three men, was but the first portion of 
the game. — Vauxhall was once Spring Gar- 
dens (in the Spectator's time) ; Ranelagh was 
the Earl of R's House; Sadler's Well (in 
London ?) was once a sacred Holywell ; then 
walled in at the Reformation, and subsequently 
discovered by the successor of one Sadler. 1 
Could any Well or Rock, or other natural 
Product, but relate its history! — Will look 
at Brand today, when my work (strenuous no- 
work !) is done here. Meanwhile to it thou 
Taugenichts ! 2 Gird thyself, stir, struggle, for- 
ward ! forward ! Thou art bundled up here, 
and tied as in a sack ? On then, as in a sack- 
race. " Running not raging." Gott sey mir 
gnadig / — 3 

12 November. Have been two days as good 
as idle! Am far from any 
approximation to health; hampered, disturbed, 
quite out of sorts. As it were quite stranded ; 
no tackle left, no tools but my ten fingers, 

1 Peter Cunningham, in his " Handbook of London " 
says : " Discovered by one Sadler, in 1683, in the garden 
of a house which he had newly opened as a public music- 

2 " Do-nothing." 

3 " God be gracious to me." 

15 225 


nothing but accidental drift-wood to build 
even a raft of. " This is no my ain house." 
— Art thou aware still that no man and no 
thing but simply thy own self can permanently 
keep thee down ? Act thou on that convic- 
tion. — 

How sad and stern is all Life to me ! Home- 
less, Homeless ! Would my Task were done : 
I think I should not care to die ; in real earn- 
estness should care very little : this earthly 
Sun has shown me only roads full of mire and 
thorns. Why cannot I be a kind of Artist ! 
Politics are angry, agitating, for the present 
little productive business: what have I to 
do with it ? Will any Parliamentary Reform 
ever reform me ? — 

On the ioth, the beginning of my Idleness, 
breakfasted with a Mr. Taylor, 1 and various 
parliamentary diplomatic young men in Gros- 
venor street. Men of pleasant, easy manners; 
a rather pleasant party. Hyde Villiers gave 
me a frank, and I wrote a long stupid letter 
to my mother 2 ; accompanying John's (from 
Turin). — Yesterday, sick enough, and was 
visited by Glen: a perfect refining furnace, 
chaotically melting and weltering, in which 

1 Henry, later Sir Henry, Taylor, " author of Artevelde 
and various similar things." In his Reminiscences, ii. 278, 
Carlyle records the " early regard, constant esteem, and 
readiness to be helpful and friendly" of this "solid, 
sound-headed, faithful" man. 

2 See Letters, i. 360. 



there is yet nothing cast, nor any mould to 
cast in. Advised him to establish forthwith 
a few " great Possibles" — as poor Davie 
Halliday, when mad, had established cer- 
tain " great Impossibles," and was wont in 
hunting down his theological chimeras, from 
proposition out of proposition, to exclaim 
at length: "that is one of the great Im- 
possibles!" and so terminate the chase. — 
Poor Glen's Life, as I told him, has been 
a soliloquy ; he has not yet acquired the 
gift of communicating, and chiefly there- 
fore, not of practically understanding — Was 
wird von ihm werden ? Weiss nicht j hoff 1 
dock. — Was wird von Dir ? Ach GottJ * 

This I begin to see, that Evil and Good 
are everywhere like Shadow and Substance : 
inseparable (for man) ; yet not hostile, only 
opposed. 2 There is considerable signifi- 
cance in this fact — perhaps the new moral 
principle of our Era. {How?) — It was fa- 
miliar to Goethe's mind. — 

Everywhere and Everywhen lie the ma- 
terials of Art : these waggons and Drivers in 

l " What will become of him ? I know not, but have 
hope. What will become of thyself? Ah, God ! " 

2" Evil . . is precisely the dark, disordered material 
out of which man's Freewill has to create an edifice of 
order and Good." " Characteristics," (1831). Essays, 
iv. 25. 



Holborn are a Dance of Death, — also of Life. 
Man and his ways reach always from Heaven 
to Hell. But where, O where is the Artist 
that can again body this forth ! — Not yet 
born ? — 

Cholera Morbus arrived at Sunderland. — 
If men are united no other way, contagion 
and pestilence unite them. — Poor Ricker is 
dead of it at Berlin; poor Dickenson dead 
(also of infection) at Edinburgh. Death's 
thousand doors stand open. Eheu / 

But now, to thy Sheet ! Complain not, still 
more, ziirrf not. As the saints say: " Pray to 
the Lord," rather (in such dialect as thou 
canst) ; also handsomely and heartily set thy 
shoulder to the wheel ! Heave-oh ! 

The nobleness of Silence. The highest 
melody dwells only in silence (the Sphere me- 
lody, the melody of Health) ; the eye cannot 
see Shadow, cannot see Light, but only the two 
combined. General Law of Being. (Think 
farther of this. NovT 17*). — 

As it is but a small portion of our Thinking 
that we can articulate into Thoughts, so again 
it is but a small portion, properly only the 
outer surface of our morality that we can shape 
into Action, or into express Rules of Action. 
Remark farther that it is but the correct cohe- 
rent shaping of this outer surface, or the in- 



correct incoherent monstrous shaping of it, 
and nowise the moral Force which shaped it, 
which lies under it, vague, indefinite, unseen, 
that constitutes what in common speech we 
call a moral conduct or an immoral. Hence 
too the necessity of tolerance, of insight, in 
judging of men. For the correctness of that 
same outer surface may be out of all propor- 
tion to the inward depth and quantity; nay 
often enough they are in inverse proportion ; 
only in some highly favoured individuals can 
the great endowment utter itself without ir- 
regularity. Thus in great men, with whom 
inward and as it were latent morality must 
ever be the root and beginning of greatness, 
how often do we find a conduct defaced by 
many a moral impropriety ; and have to love 
them with sorrow! Thus too poor Burns 
must record that almost the only noble- 
minded men he had ever met with were among 
the class named Blackguards. 1 

Extremes meet. Perfect Morality were no 
more an object of consciousness than perfect 
Immorality, as pure Light cannot any more 
be seen than pure Darkness. — 

l " I have often courted the acquaintance of that part 
of mankind, commonly known by the ordinary phrase of 
blackguards ... I have yet found among them, in not 
a few instances, some of the noblest virtues." Burns, 
" Common Place Book," March, 1784. In Cromek's 
Reliques of Burns, 1817, p. 323. 



The healthy moral nature loves virtue; 
the unhealthy at best makes love to it. 1 

Friday Finished th e Characteristics, 

23 d December, about a week ago; bad- 
dish, with a certain begin- 
ning of deeper insight in it. 

Reading the Corn Law Rhymes? " Balaam's 
Ass has not only stopt,but begins to speak ! " 
Witness Detrosier too. — 3 

Byron we call " a Dandy of Sorrows, and 
acquainted with grief." That is a brief defi- 
nition of him. 

13t h January London still. — Have spent 
1832. nearly three weeks in reading 

Croker's BoswelFs Johnson; 
on which I have now (and had) some pur- 
pose of writing an Essay. I mean to try 
whether I cannot get into a more currente 
calamo style of writing; for magazines and 
the like, it were far more suitable : whether 
also for me and my objects ? The Charac- 

1 The thought in this and the preceding entry is worked 
out in the " Characteristics." 

2 By Ebenezer Elliott. These poems furnished the 
text of the article with the same title. 

3 Detrosier was a " Manchester Lecturer to the Work- 
ing Classes," brought by John Mill to Carlyle. " The 
Saint Simonians, Manchester, Detrosier, etc., were stir- 
ring and conspicuous objects in that epoch, but have 
now fallen all dark and silent again." T. C. 1866. 
Life, ii. 224, n. 



teristics was written with almost intolerable 
difficulty, and is ill written, I fear no one will 
understand it. We shall see in a week or 
two, for it is coming out. — 

Have made a kind of engagement with 
Lardner of the Cabinet Cyclopedia to furnish 
him a Zur Geschichte 1 of German Literature; 
incorporating my Papers in the Foreign Re- 
view &c, 170 pages of original writing: do 
not yet above three-fourths see my way thro' 
it ; am to have it ready next November. No 
list of "Books wanted" yet made out; this 
should be my first task. The work will serve 
me perhaps pretty tolerably thro' the sum- 
mer ; I shall get done with German Litera- 
ture; a little money too (^300) for my two 
volumes, and pay off that ^60^ my only 
debt which sometimes grieves me a little. — I 
have been sick of a kind of cold; and am 
still in rather uncomfortable health ; but do 
not mind it very much. 

Plenty of Magazine Editors applying to 
me; indeed sometimes pestering me. Do 
not like to break with any; yet must not 
close with any. Strange state of Literature, 
periodical and other ! A man must just lay 
out his manufacture in one of those Old- 

1 A book ' ' on the history " of German Literature. See 
Letters, i. 389. 

2 Money lent by Jeffrey to Carlyle's brother John. 
See Letters, i. 314. It was paid in August, 1832. See 
Id., ii. 64. 



Clothes shops, and see whether any one will 
buy it. The Editor has little to do with the 
matter, except as Commercial Broker; he 
sells it and pays you for it. — Lytton Bulwer * 
has not yet come into sight of me : is there 
aught more in him than a Dandiacal Philoso- 
phist? Fear, not. — Tait the Bookseller 
about beginning a new Magazine, on the 
Radical side of things : my feeling is that the 
chances are greatly against him ; for my own 
share I have nothing to do with him or it as 
yet, my hands full otherwise. Then of the 
infatuated Fraser, with his Dog's-meat Cart 
of a magazine, what? His pay is certain, 
and he means honestly ; but is a goose. It 
was he that sent me Croker's Boswell : am I 
bound to offer him the (future) Article? — 
Or were this thy Rule in such cases : " Write 
thy best and the Truth; then publish it 
where thou canst best " ? An indubitable 
rule ; but is it rule enough ? — 

Last Friday, saw my name in large letters 
at the Athenaeum Office in Catherine street 
Strand; hurried on with downcast eyes, as 
if I had seen myself in the Pillory. Dilke 
(to whom I had entrusted Dreck to read it, 
and see if he could help me with it) asked 
me for a scrap of writing with my name : I 
could not quite clearly see my way thro' the 
business (for he had twice or thrice been civil 

l Then editor of the New Monthly Magazine. 


to me, and I did reckon his Athenaeum to be 
the bad best of literary Newspaper syllabubs, 
and tho* I might harmlessly say so much) ; 
gave him Fausfs Curse, which hung printed 
there. Incline now to believe that I did 
wrong; at least imprudently. Why yield 
even half a hair's-breadth to Puffing ? Abhor 
it, utterly divorce it, and kick it to the Devil ! 
— This little adventure, however, hat nichts 
zu bedeuten ; l so trouble not thyself with it. 

On Tuesday last (10 th Jan y ) wrote to John 
in Rome ; 2 from whom I am getting impatient 
for a Letter. 

Have an Article in prospect (still within 
myself) on the Radical plebeian who writes 
Cornlaw Rhymes. Wish to do the poor soul 
a justice and a kindness. 

Singular how little wisdom or light of any 
kind I have met with in London. Do not 
find a single creature that has communicated 
an idea to me ; at best one or two that can 
understand an idea. Yet the sight of Lon- 
don works on me strongly ; I have not per- 
haps lost my journey hither. 3 

Dreck unpublished, to all appearance un- 
punishable. One Tilt of Fleet-street (a triv- 
iality) " glanced over it," then " regretted" 

1 " Is really insignificant." 

2 See Letters, i. 382. 3 See Id., i. 391. 



&c. Dilke had no light to throw on the 
business, and I think will have none : the 
MS at this moment in the hands of Charles 
Buller. Glen, Mill and he have all read it ; 
apparently, not without result : it was intended 
for such, therefore seems not wholly verfehlt. 1 
As for the publication of it, I grow indifferent 
about that matter ; indeed the whole concern 
is becoming unimportant to me. What is 
true today will be true tomorrow and next 
day. — We can wait, — forever. 2 

Hay ward, of the Temple, 3 a small but ac- 
tive and vivacious ' man of the time,' by a 
strange impetus, takes to me ; the first time, 
they say, he ever did such a thing, being one 
that lives in a chiaro-scuro element of which 
goodhumoured contempt is the basis. I met 
him at Mr Gray's, where also was one Dr. 
Bach, a German zealously kind to me : Hay- 
ward started this scheme of the Germ. Lit. 
Hist., and made it all ready for me. 4 Singu- 
lar enough. (Lardner ein Langohriger)? Dined 

1 " A failure." 2 See Letters, i. 391. 

3 Mr. Abraham Hayward, translator of the first part 
of Faust, editor of Autobiography », Letters, etc. of Mrs. Pi- 
ozzi, 1861, writer of a multitude of gossiping papers. He 
died in 1884. 

4 Cf. Letters, i. 389. 

5-Dr. Dionysius Lardner, " a long-eared" man of sci- 
ence, of some transient repute, editor of the Cabinet Cy- 
clopaedia, in which this History was to appear. He after- 
ward became sadly notorious. He died in 1859. 



in his rooms (once Dunning's 1 !) with a set of 
Oxonian Templars : stupid (in part), limited 
(wholly), conceited, obscene. A dirty even- 
ing; I at last sunk utterly silent. Bernays 
(a German Professor — in the "King's Col- 
lege " here) understood what I was saying : 
but could say little, tho' in many words. Am 
to go thither today, and meet a certain Sir 
Alexander Johnston : small things expected 
of him. He has been in China, and knew 
Schiller.— 2 

I have never again seen Bowring or Fon- 
blanque. Mean to see at least the latter. 
None of the great personages of Letters have 
come in my way here ; and except as sights, 
they are of little moment to me. Jeffrey 
says he "praised me to Rogers," who, &c. 
&c : it sometimes rather surprises me that his 
Lordship does not think it would be kind to 
show me the faces of those people : some- 
thing discourages or hinders him ; what it is 
I know not, and indeed care not. — The Aus- 
tins, at least the {la) Austin I like j 3 eine 

1 " The great lawyer," as Johnson called him in aletter 
to Boswell, July 22, 1777 ; afterward the first Lord Ash- 

2 Sir Alexander Johnston had as a young man, near the 
beginning of the century, studied at Gottingen, and 
probably then saw Schiller. A large part of his life was 
passed in Ceylon, where in the organization and admin- 
istration of the government he did excellent service. 

3 The John Austins were living at Hampstead. " Mrs. 
Austin is described by Carlyle, after first seeing her, as 



verstandige, herzhafte Frau. 1 Empson a di- 
luted, goodnatured, languid Anemfifindler. 2 
The strongest young man, one Macaulay 
(now in Parliament, as I from the first pre- 
dicted), an emphatic, hottish, really forcible 
person; but unhappily without divine idea? 
Perhaps he could play the part of a Canning; 
were the scene now the same, which however 
it is not. Rogers (an elegant, politely malig- 
nant old lady, I think 4 ) is in Town (and prob- 
ably I might see him) : Moore is I know not 
where, — a lascivious triviality, of great name. 
Bentham is said to have become a driveller, 
and garrulous old man : perhaps I will try for a 
look of him ; he is or was a forcible product. 
— I have much to see, and many things to 

' the most enthusiastic of German Mystics I have ever met 
with : an exceedingly vivid person, not without insight, 
but enthusiastic, as it were astonished, rapt to ecstasy 
with the German apocalypse, and as she says herself 
verdeutscht " (Germanised). Letters, i. 320. Author of 
Characteristics of Goethe, 3 vols., 1833. The friendly ac- 
quaintance begun at this time continued through later 

1 "An intelligent, resolute woman." 

2 " Adopter of the sentiments of another." 

3 Macaulay had distinguished himself greatly in the 
debate in the House of Commons on the Reform Bill. 
One of his speeches was said by Jeffrey to put him 
' ' clearly at the head of the great speakers, if not the de- 
baters of the House." Cockburn, Life of Lord Jeffrey, i. 


4 " Rogers was a kindly old man, excepting when he 
was bilious." Tennyson reported by Mr. Locker- 
Lampson. Life of 'Tennyson, ii. 72. 



wind up in London, before we leave it — in 

I went one morning searching for John- 
son's places of abode. Found, with difficulty, 
the house in Gough (Goff ) Square where the 
Dictionary was composed : * the landlord, 
whom Glen and I incidentally inquired of, 
was just scraping his feet at the door; invited 
us to walk in; showed us the garret rooms 
&c. (of which he seemed to have the obscu- 
rest traditions ; taking Johnson for a school- 
master!); interested us much; but at length 
(dog of a fellow !) began to hint that he had 
all these rooms to let as lodgings ! — I saw 
also Savage's Birthplace (Foxcourt, Brook st. 
& Gray's Inn Lane) one of the horridest holes 
in London. — Must speak with old Smith of 
the Museum, on the subject. — 

London is of all the places I ever walked 
and inquired in, that where you oftenest have 
the answer : " Don't know." A quite anarchic 
place in all respects. The men that could 
tell you, exist, but where ? You cannot even 
find a Library to borrow Books from. 2 Were 

1 Cf. article on Johnson. Essays, iv. 112. 

2 After Carlyle settled in London, and especially when 
he was at work on Cromwell, this want of a lending li- 
brary in London was pressed home upon him, and he 
set earnestly at work to supply the need. He interested 
people of influence in the matter, and mainly through 
his efforts the invaluable London Library was estab- 



it not for the Museum one where you have 
a certain help, the obstruction were total. 

Biography is the only History : * Political 
History, as now written and hitherto, with its 
Kings and changes of Taxgatherers, is little 
(very little) more than a mockery of our 
want. This I see more and more. 

The world grows to* me evermore as a Magic 
Picture, a true Supernatural Revelation ; infi- 
nitely stern, but also infinitely grand. Shall I 
ever succeed in copying a little therefrom. 

" What I gave I have ; what I spent I had, 
what I left I lost." Epitaph at Doncaster (?) 
from Johnson's Letters. 2 The first, and only 

lished. He wrote to Emerson, 8 Feb., 1839, " We have 
no Library here, from which we can borrow books home ; 
and are only in these weeks striving to get one : think 
of that!" In the course of the year the Library was 
opened. Carlyle was for many years its President. See 
Life, iii. 152, 188. 

1 Cf. ' Biography,' Essays, iv. 53. 

2 Carlyle cites this epitaph in his fine essay on John- 
son. The epitaph varying slightly in form is found on 
several tombs. Gibbon in his History cites from Cleave- 
land's Genealogical History of the Family of Courtenay, 
1735. P- 142, the epitaph of Edward, the blind Earl 
of Devon of the 15th century, which is in the words 
given by Carlyle, except for having ! we ' in the place of 
' I.' The epitaph at Doncaster which Johnson cited was 
on the tomb of one Robyn of Doncaster and ran : 

"That I spent, that I had ; 
That I gave, that I have ; 
That I left, that I lost." 



true, clause of it was long ago a perception 
of my own. 

Dies irae, dies ilia : where shall I find that 
old chant? Must investigate. (Now en- 
ough for one morning ! ) — 

Dies irae, dies ilia 
Solvet saeclum in favilla : 
Teste David cum Sybilla. 

Quantus tremor est futurus 
Quando Judex est venturus, 
Cuncta stricte discussurus ! 

The tomb perished in the fire that destroyed the church 
in 1853. See Letters of Johnson, edited by G. Birkbeck 
Hill, 1892, i. 224, n. In the church of St. Peter at Veru- 
lam (St. Alban's), Bedfordshire, there is, or was at the 
beginning of the century, a brass plate engraved with a 
similar epitaph in Latin, with an English translation, 
the two in concentric circles, the outer circle being 
formed of the English words, the inner of the Latin. 
The English, modernized, ran thus : 

Lo all that ere I spent, that sometime had I ; 
All that I gave in good intent, that now have I ; 
That I neither gave nor lent, that now abie I ; 
That I kepte till I went, that lost I. 
The Latin was as follows : 

Quod expendi habui, 
Quod donavi habeo, 
Quod negavi punior, 
Quod servavi perdidi. 
See Beauties of 'England and Wales, 1808, vii. ioo, where 
is an engraving of this curious plate. 




Tuba, mirum spargens sonum 
Per sepulchra regionum, 
Coget omnes ante thronum. 

Mors stupebit et natura, 
Cum resurget creatura, 
Judicanti responsura. 

Liber scriptus proferetur, 
In quo totum continetur, 
Unde mundus judicetur. 

Judex ergo cum sedebit, 
Quidquid latet, apparebit : 
Nil inultum remanebit. 

Quid sum miser tunc dicturus, 
Quern patronum rogaturus, 
Cum vix Justus sit securus? 

Rex tremendae majestatis, 
Qui salvandos salvas gratis, 
Salva me, fons pietatis. 

Recordare Jesu pie, 
Quod sum causa tuas viae ; 
Ne me perdas ilia die. 



Quaerens me, sedisti lassus ; 
Redemisti crucem passus : 
Tantus labor non sit cassus. 

Juste Judex ultionis, 
Donum fac remissionis, 
Ante diem rationis. 

Ingemisco tanquam reus, 
Culpa rubet vultus meus, 
Supplicanti parce, Deus. 

Qui Mariam absolvisti, 
Et latronem exaudisti, 
Mihi quoque spem dedisti. 


Preces meae non sunt dignae 
Sed Tu bonus fac benigne 
Ne perenni cremer igne. 

Inter oves locum praesta, 
Et ab haedis me sequestra, 
Statuens in parte dextra. 


Confutatis maledictis, 
Flammis acribus addictis, 
Voca me cum benedictis. 

16 241 


Oro supplex et acclinis, 
Cor contritum quasi cinis : 
Gere curam mei finis. 

Lachrymosa dies ilia 
Qua resurget ex favilla. 
Judicandus homo reus. 
Huic ergo parce, Deus. 

Pie Jesu Domine dona eis requiem. — Amen. 

[Copied from the " Mass for the Dead on 
the Day of decease or burial " in the Romish 
Missal (London, 1806 p. 512) this 14 th Jan?: 
long sought for; found by Jane, last night ac- 

— Did not see the Sir A. J. yesterday; and 
cared less than nothing. — Invited to see Hogg 
(the Ettrick Shepherd) for Friday next. 

Books to be looked after. 

Grose's Olio. — The Foundling Hospital 
of Wit. 

Arnold on Insanity. Carleton's Memoirs 
(of the Duke of Ormond ? — 17th century. 
Republished 1808). 

Psalmanazar's Memoirs. Wool's Life of 
War ton. 

Moore's Life of Smollett (worth anything?) 


Hardy's Life of Charlemont. Pennant's 

Cradock's Memoirs (when? who?) 

Spence's Anecdotes. Davies's Life of Gar- 

Life of Goldsmith (by Sir Joseph Mawbey ?) 

Maty's Life of Chesterfield. Leland's, Itin- 

Seward's Anecdotes of Eminent Persons. 

Nichols's Anecdotes. — Miss Hawkins's 

These works are noted down from Croker's 
edition of Boswell's Johnson; which work I 
have just been earnestly reading; and now 
propose writing some kind of Essay upon. — 
January 18*, 1832. — 

Parson Hackman (Narrative of) in " Love 
& Madness ; " a foolish, partially indecent, 
altogether frothy Book. He killed M's 1 mother 
(Lord Sandwich's mistress, a Miss Ray) at the 
door of the Theatre, and was executed at Ty- 
burn in 1779 ( ms Trial was 16* April). 2 — What 
stuff men are made of! It is very true that a 
madman lies within every sane man ; is the ma- 
terial whereof the sane man fashions himself. 

Hazlitt's Liber Amoris read for the first 

1 Basil Montagu, born 1770, died 1851, husband of the 
'Noble Lady' (see ante, p. 195), and not without other 
claims to remembrance. 

2 Cf. Reminiscences, ii. 126 ; and see Boswell's Johnson, 
edited by Dr. Birkbeck Hill, iii. 383. 



time : quite an enchantment, like one of those 
in the Midsummer Nighfs Dream; a most 
hairy-faced, long-eared Bottom the weaver ! 
No ' Confession ' perhaps ever exhibited a 
a man in more despicably pitiable, ludicrously 
abominable light, since confessions first came 
into fashion. 

II volto sciolto, i pensieri stretti. ( This is 
Wotton's word.) 1 

Campbell's Hermippus Redivivus (gives ac- 
count of the Hermetic Philosophy). — Lives 
of the Admirals by the same. This was he 
who " always pulled his hat off when passing 
a church." 2 

Came upon Shepherd, the Unitarian Par- 
son of Liverpool, yesterday for the first time, 
at Mrs. Austin's. A very large purply flabby 

1 " At Siena I was tabled in the house of one Alberto 
Scipioni, an old Roman Courtier in dangerous times 
. . . and at my departure toward Rome ... I had 
won confidence enough to beg his advice how I might 
carry myself securely there, without offence of others, or 
of mine own conscience. Signor Arrigo mio (sayes he) / 
Pensieri stretti, e il viso sciolto: That is, Your thoughts 
close, and your countenance loose, will go safely over the 

whole World." Letter to Master Reliquice Wot- 

tonuzna, 1651, p. 434. The letter was to Milton; see Notes 
and Queries, July, 1852, p. 5. 

2 See Bos well's Johnson (ed. Hill), ii. 418. Dr. Camp- 
bell was but the translator of the Hermippus Redivivu, 
the author was Dr. J. H. Cohausen of Coblentz, See 
Id., iii. 427, note, for an account of the book. 



man ; massive head with long thin grey hair; 
eyes both squinting, both overlapped at the 
corners by a little roof of brow; giving him 
(with his ill-shut mouth) a kind of lazy, eat- 
ing, goodhumoured aspect. For the rest, a 
Unitarian Radical ; clear, steadfast, but every 
way limited. . . : He said Jeffrey did not 
strike him as " a very taking man." Lanca- 
shire accent, or some provincial one. — Have 
long known the Unitarians intus et in cute ; 
and never got any good of them ; or any ill. 

Was the building of St. Paul's or the writ- 
ing of Paradise Lost more necessary to Eng- 
land ? The one cost us ;£i 50,000, the other 
^15. — Literature cannot be rewarded in 
money : it is priceless. — Have an Essay " on 
Authors " in my eye. 

Franklin, I find twice or thrice in Boswell, 
defines man as "a Tool-making Animal." 
Teufelsdreck therefore has so far been antici- 
pated. 1 Vivant qui ante nos nostra dixerunt ! 

Saturday 21?t Yesterday sat scribbling 
January. some stuff, close on the bor- 

ders of nonsense, about Bi- 
ography, as a kind of introduction to " John- 

1 " ' But on the whole,' continues our eloquent Pro- 
fessor, ' Man is a Tool-using Animal.' " Sartor, Book i. 
ch. v. See Boswell's Johnson (ed. Hill), iii. 245 for the 
citation of Franklin's definition. 



son." 1 How is it to be ? I see not well ; 
know only that it should be light, and written 
(by way of experiment) currente calamo. I 
am sickly, not dispirited, yet sad. As is my 
wont : when did I laugh last ? Alas, ' light 
laughter, like heavy money, has altogether 
fled from us.' The reason is we have no com- 
munion j company enough, but no fellow- 
ship. Time brings roses. Meanwhile, the 
grand perennial Communion of Saints is 
ever open to us : enter, and worthily com- 
port thyself there ! 

Nothing in this world is to me more mourn- 
ful, distressing and in the end intolerable, 
than mirth not based on Earnestness (for it is 
false mirth) ; than wit, pretending to be wit, 
and yet not based on wisdom. Two objects 
would reduce me to gravity had I the spirits 
of a Merry Andrew : a Death's Head and a 
modern London Wit. The besom of destruc- 
tion should be swept over these people; or 
else perpetual silence (except when they 
needed victuals or the like) imposed on 

In the afternoon, Jeffrey, as he is often 
wont, called in on us : very lively, quick and 
— light. Chatted about " cholera ; " a sub- 
ject far more interesting to him than it is to 
us. Walked with him to Regent street; in 

1 It was printed as an independent paper in Fraser's 



hurried assiduous talk. Shiel (the Irish ora- 
tor) had been once, he said, convicted of a lie : 
it was some story he had told, of Police tor- 
tures or such like, in the Catholic Associa- 
tion; having been that very day convinced 
that it was not true. O'Connell I called a 
real specimen of the almost obsolete species 
Demagogue. (Why should it be obsolete, this 
being the very scene for it ? Chiefly because 
we are all Dilettantes, and have no heart of 
Faith, even for the coarsest of beliefs.) His 
" cunning " the sign, as cunning ever is, of a 
weak intellect, as of a weak character. — Very 
few Irish Appeals come to the House of 
Lords; a far greater proportion of Scotch. 
Why? The Irish Courts are identical with 
the English; their decisions little apt to be 
reversed : in any Scotch case, from the Chan- 
cellor's ignorance, there is a chance (like the 
throwing of dice) that he may decide either 
way. Eldon often decided palpably wrong. 
Nevertheless not above i case in 70, even of 
those decided in the Scotch Inner House, is 
appealed from. Of those that stop in the 
Outer House, " perhaps not one in 500." All 
causes that go from the Outer to the Inner 
House go thither in the shape of appeal. 
Scotch law, Jeffrey agrees, is much better 
than English. He tells, what so few here can 
do, an intelligible tale about what he is work- 
ing in. Seemed to admit with me that the 



whole system of English Law has provoked 
not unjustly a fixed spirit of revolt in the 
minds of all men, and that it must be totally 
new-made. ' In my younger days, it was 
said if you had a contention about ^30, let 
it go either way, do not enter Court at all : 
now the ^30 has become ^80, and the ad- 
vice is repeated with that variation. Very 
bad.' — I have an immense appetite for 
statistics; but can get no proviant of that 

At my return home, whom should I find 
standing but Gustave d'Eichthal the Saint- 
Simonian ! A little, tight, cleanly pure lov- 
able Geschopfchen .- 1 a pure martyr and apos- 
tle, as it seems to me ; almost the only one 
(not ' belonging to the Past ') whom I have 
met with in my pilgrimage. Mill goes so far 
as to think there might and should be mar- 
tyrs : this is one. He spoke French and 
English. His ideas narrow, and sore dis- 
torted ; but his mind open, his heart noble. 
I have pleasure in the prospect of meeting 
him again. — 

Soon after, Arthur Buller called with a 
"mein bester Freund!" A goodish youth; 
affectionate, at least attached : not so hand- 
some as I had expected, tho' more so than 
enough. He walked with me to Fraser's 
Dinner in Regent street; or rather to the 

1 ' Little creature.' 


door of Fraser's house, & there took leave 
with stipulation of speedy re-meeting. 1 

Enter thro' Fraser's Bookshop into a back- 
room, where sit Allan Cunningham, W. Fra- 
ser 2 (the only two known to me personally), 
James Hogg (in the easy-chair of honour), 
Gait, and one or two nameless persons ; pa- 
tiently waiting for dinner. Locjdiart (whom 
I did not know) requested to be introduced 
to me. A precise brief active person, of con- 
siderable faculty, which however had shaped 
itself gigmanically only. Fond of quizzing, 
yet not very maliciously. Has a broad black 
brow indicating force and penetration, but a 
lower half of face dwindling into the char- 
acter at best of distinctness, almost of trivial- 
ity. Rather liked the man, and shall like to 
meet him again. 3 — Gait looks old, is deafish ; 
has the air of a sedate Greenock Burgher; 

1 In a letter to his mother, 22 Jan., Carlyle said, " The 
Bullers are here, both parents and sons all in the friend- 
liest relation to me . . . The two boys are promising 
fellows and may one day be heard of in the world" 
(as, indeed, they were). Letters, ii. 10. 

2 James Fraser was the proprietor of the Bookshop, 
and publisher of Fraser s Magazine. William Fraser 
was for some time editor of the Foreign Review, to which 
Carlyle was the most important contributor. 

3 In 1839 Carlyle's acquaintance with Lockhart was 
renewed, and he wrote to his brother, ' Had a long 
interview with the man [Lockhart] yesterday, found him 
a person of sense, good breeding, even kindness.' 
Life, iii. 163. After this their relations continued on 
terms of mutual respect and friendliness. 



mouth indicating sly humour, and self-satis- 
faction; the eyes old and without lashes, 
gave me a sort of wae interest for him. He 
wears spectacles, and is hard of hearing : a 
very large man; and eats and drinks with a 
certain west-country gusto and research. 
Said little; but that little peaceable, clear 
and gutmuthig. 1 Wish to see him also again. 2 
— Hogg 3 is a little, red-skinned, stiff, sack of 
a body, with quite the common air of an Et- 
trick shepherd ; except that he has a highish 
tho' sloping brow (among his yellow-grizzled 
hair), and two clear little beads of blue or 
grey eyes, that sparkle if not with thought 
yet with animation. Behaves himself quite 
easily and well. Speaks Scotch, and mostly 
narrative absurdity (or even obscenity) there- 
with. Appears in the mingled character of 
Zany and raree-show : all bent on bantering 
him, especially Lockhart; Hogg walking 
thro' it, as if unconscious, or almost flattered. 
His vanity seems to be immense, but also his 

1 ' Good-natured.' 

2 John Gait, 1779-1839, a busy and prolific man of 
letters, whose ' Annals of the Parish ' are still worth 
reading as a true picture of rustic Scotch life ; liked 
and praised by Scott. 

3 The ' Ettrick Shepherd,' eternized not so much by 
his own works, as by Scott's goodness to him, and 
Wordsworth's verses upon his death. "He was un- 
doubtedly," wrote Wordsworth, in the note prefixed to 
his 'Extempore Effusion,' "a man of original genius, 
but of coarse manners and low and offensive opinions." 



goodnature: I felt interest for the poor 
' Herd Body ' ; wondered to see him blown 
hither from his sheepfolds, and how, quite 
friendless as he was, he went along cheerful, 
mirthful and musical. I do not well under- 
stand the man : his significance is perhaps 
considerable. His poetic talent is authentic, 
yet his intellect seems of the weakest, his 
morality also limits itself to the precept : Be 
not angry. Is the charm of this poor man 
chiefly to be found herein, That he is a real 
product of Nature, and able to speak natur- 
ally — which not one in the thousand is? 
An ' unconscious talent/ tho' of the small- 
est 5 emphatically naive. Once or twice in 
singing (for he sung of his own) there was an 
emphasis in poor Hogg's look, expressive of 
feeling, almost of enthusiasm. The man is a 
very curious specimen : Alas he is a Man ; 
yet how few will so much as treat him like a 
specimen, and not like a mere wooden Punch 
or Judy 1 / — For the rest our talk was utterly 
despicable. Stupidity, insipidity, even not a 
little obscenity (in which all save Gait, Fra- 
ser and myself seemed to join) was the only 
outcome of the night. 2 Literary men / They 
are not worthy to be valets of such. Was a 

1 Cf. Letters, ii. 9. 

2 ' The conversation was about the basest I ever as- 
sisted in," wrote Carlyle to his brother John, 18 Febr. 
Life, ii. 263. 



thing. said that did not even solicit in mercy 
to be forgotten ? Not so much as the at- 
tempt or wish to speak profitably. Trivi- 
alitas trivialitatum ; omnia trivia Mas / — I 
went to see, and I saw ; and have now said, 
and mean to be silent, or try if I can speak 
elsewhere. — Enough for once. 


[What follows was written under another 
binding; and is now slit out, and sewed in 
here, another better Note book having come 
to hand. 15* May.] 2 

March (about 8*) 1832 — Finished a has- 
tened Paper on Johnson; which now (i5 l . h ) 
lies at Press. Perhaps not wholly without 

1 On the 22 January Carlyle's Father died, and the re- 
maining pages of the original Note Book (pp. 52-76), and 
an addition sewed into it of forty-two pages, are occupied 
with Carlyle's Reminiscences of his Father. They be- 
gin : " On Tuesday, January the 24th 1832, I received 
tidings that my dear and worthy Father had departed 
out of this world." And a few pages further on Carlyle 
writes : ' I purpose now, while the impression is more 
pure and clear within me, to mark down the main things 
I can recollect of my Father.' This record of his Fa- 
ther's life, one of the most impressive biographical 
sketches in the language, is printed in Reminiscences, i. 
1-52. The date at its close is ' Sunday night, 29th Janu- 
ary 1832.' • 

2 " What follows " occupies an addition to the Note- 
book, of which the pages are numbered 1 19-152. 



worth : we shall see. — [Have been interrupted, 
and no time is left at present.] — 

British Museum (Saturday, St Patrick's day 
for I saw Irishmen with shillelahs!) Came 
hither to look after Diderot, whereof here is 
what lies in the Biog. Universelle : 

He translated Stanyan's History of Greece 
(1743). Diet. deMedecine (1746). Essaisurle 
Merite et laVertu (1745) half-translated out of 
Shaftesbury — Pensees Philosophiques (1746) 
made much noise — Lettre sur les aveugles 
for the use of those that see (1749) : sent to 
Vincennes in consequence. Encycloped. 
(1751) the two first vol. — and excited atten- 
tion — 1752 it was suspended (de par le roi) 
for 18 months. Stopt again in 1759 when 
d'Alemb. retired : Dider. exerted himself 
(honour of the nation, advantage to trade, 
&c.) ; the Direct, de la librairie (who ? what ? ) 
and due de Choiseul granted a protection (7 
vol. already out); and the rest of the work' was 
published with the entirest freedom, each striv- 
ing who should emit the most " philosophical 
idea" : hastily got up too : Diderot was alone 
in it ; took such workmen as he could get. — 

In the fidelite conjugale ne voit qu'un 
entetement et un supplice. Supplem. to the 
voyage of Bougainville. — Obscene novels 
(vols. 10, 11, 12 of Naigeon 1 ) very obscene it 

l Naigeon was the editor of the Works of Diderot, in 



is said. — Eleutheromanes (Liberty-mad), these 
two lines (qu'on lui a tant reproch£) 

Et ses mains ourdiraient les entrailles du pretre, 
A defaut d'un cordon, pour etrangler les rois. 1 

— Vol. 4. contains his pieces de theatre. 

Bishop Douglas 2 (Dr Johnson's) came from 
Pittenweem in Fife ! The son of a ' mer- 
chant ' [fiegociant] there : wrote against Hume 
and on Politics. 

Home? (This appears to be the 17 th of 
March). Have just finished with Lardner 
about the Lit. Hist, of Germany; and am 
off with him, eitimal und immertnehr.^ 'Tis 
as well, perhaps better. A History will grow 

15 volumes, published in 1798, and reprinted often after- 
wards. He inserted in the text passages of an atheistic 
character, without indication that they were his own, and 
not Diderot's. See Sainte-Beuve, Causeries du Lundi 
(1851), Tome iii. p. 227. 

1 Carlyle cites and comments on these verses "sur- 
passing all yet uttered or utterable in the Tyrtaean way ' ' 
in his article on Diderot. Essays, v. 43. 

2 Dr. John Douglas, Bishop of Salisbury, 1721-1807 ; 
a member of the Literary Club, noted for his exposure 
of Lauder's forgeries, commemorated by Goldsmith in 
Retaliation, — 

" Here Douglas retires from his toils to relax, 
The scourge of impostors, the terror of quacks." 

3 'Home,' that is, the lodgings in Ampton Street; the 
last entry having been made at the British Museum. 

4 * Once and forever.' 



among my hands (by Review Articles) into 
a fitter shape; and may, one day, be pub- 
lished on its own foundation, — if the world 
require it; if not, not. Meanwhile, I have 
other work to seek for myself: The Sheffield 
Radical, 1 Diderot, Authors, Lessing, Thoma- 
sius, Fichte ; plenty of them ! 

Settled yesterday, with Fraser, about the 
dividing of Johnson? A foolish vehicle his 
scavenger-cart of a Magazine is : but what 
then ? We must speak ; if not by one organ, 
then by another. — Make not so much of 
those pitiful lucubrations of thine : cast them 
forth ; wirfsie schweigend in die ewige Zeit / 3 
They are but rubbish, — as all Time-things 
are : do thy best with them ; then let the 
world do its. 

Bookselling (as I told Lardner, much to 
his surprise) is in the state of ' delirium be- 
fore death ': the more needful is it that thou 
walk wisely thro' the middle of it. 

We are both (Weibchen and I) considera- 
bly hurt in health, and longing to be home ; 
which we expect soon. The climate of this 

1 Ebenezer Elliott. 

2 By the separation of the introductory pages on Bi- 
ography in general, to form an independent article. 

3 " Cast them silently away for ever." 



place is among the most detestable on Earth : 
otherwise, the place has been wholly agree- 
able to us. 

Yesternight I saw Sir Nicholas Harris Nic- 
olas Knight of the Guelphic Order, Antiqua- 
rian and what not j a good-natured, rattling, 
small rather than thick-headed mortal : he said 
(coming home with me thro' Chancery Lane), 
" I believe I have ruined (or done more to 
ruin) more Booksellers than any man living: 
no Book of mine ever paid its expenses." 

The evening before (at W. Fraser's), I had 
seen this Knight, and another of the same, 1 
Sir David Brewster! B. is still full of pro- 
jects and purveyor-activity : for the rest, has 
become a Whig and Reformer, and speaks 
about this Chancellor 2 exactly as about the 
Chancellor; whose sublime mind (he took 
pains to say) had included even me in its 
contemplations. A tough, vivacious man! 
Not without kindness, at least great sociality, 
of disposition ; and for his practical opinions : 

O wonder, O wonder ! enter and see : 

A weathercock's head where his tail sh d be. 

Leigh Hunt and I have come into contact 
by occasion of the Characteristics : he sought 
me out, and has been twice here; I once with 

1 ' Another of the same ' is a phrase from the Scotch 
version of the Psalms, in frequent use in Scotland. A. C. 

2 Lord Brougham. 



him. A pleasant, innocent, ingenious man ; 
filled with Epicurean Philosophy, and steeped 
in it to the very heart. He has suffered more 
than most men; is even now bankrupt (in 
purse and repute), sick, and enslaved to daily- 
toil : yet will nothing persuade him that Man 
is born for another object here than to be 
happy. Honour to tenacity of conviction ! 
Credo quia impossibile. — A man copious and 
cheerfully sparkling in conversation ; of grave 
aspect, never laughs, hardly smiles; black 
hair shaded to each side ; hazel eyes, with a 
certain lifting up of the eyebrows that has no 
archness in it, rather sentient, well- satisfied 
self-consciousness. He is a real lover of 
Nature, and even singer thereof; and, for the 
rest, belongs to London in the opening of the 
igth century. — x 

The ' Cockney School ' will one day be 
historically significant ; in a small way. Its 
chief character is even this Epicurism ; half- 
vision it had, but then only half. . . . Not 
Stare super antiquas vias, thencefrom to look 
out for new ways, and walk thereon ; but sim- 
ply to leap the hedges, and so sink in quag- 
mires: this has been their method. They 
knew the wrong, not the right : worst of all, 
they did not care properly to know it, but 

1 The acquaintance with Hunt was renewed when 
Carlyle settled in London in 1834. See Reminiscences, i. 
104, 174 ; Letters, ii. 150, 701, et al. 

17 257 


sought only self. We shall see them all bet- 
ter one day. 

Wrote to John at Rome (a double Letter, 
which would go off yesterday). — 

Schlegel is here : I left my card ; and hope 
not, and care not, to see the old fool. His 
usual wig is blond; his face he paints ! Ach ! 
Finally, he is a literary Gigman. They are to 
give him a dinner at the " Literary Union " 
to-day: who? One Hay ward (the "cleverest 
of the second-rate men," who has been much 
here), and Dionysius Lardner! — The day of 
small things. — 

" Dr. Maginn "was at Fraser's with the two 
Sirs. 1 A rattling Irishman, full of quizzicality 
and drollery, without ill-nature, without earn- 
estness, certainty of conviction or purpose in 
regard to any subject, except this one : Punch 
is Punch. A shortish thickset man (looks up- 
wards of forty) with a fine (almost genial) gray 
eye ; wears a wig. Is the proper Palinurus 
and originator of Fraser's Magazine; wherein, 
and in the Standard Newspaper, he finds his 
chief threshing-floor at present. I understand 
he " works mostly for the dead horse." 

1 William Maginn (1794 — 1842) was one of the most 
prolific and versatile magazine-writers of his time ; he 
had cleverness, wit, and a store of miscellaneous learn- 
ing. But he wrote little or nothing of permanent value. 



Fraser's Magazine took being first in the 
head of William Fraser ; has, or had no Editor, 
Aim, or Principle: a chaotic, fermenting, dung- 
hill heap of compost (as all these things are) ; 
of which I have at last succeeded in forming 
to myself some comprehensible notion. Its 
circulation only is still obscure to me; the 
methods of circulating it. One day I will jot 
down what I know: such things will rather 
soon, I think, be strange. The Bookseller is 
no knave : that is perhaps the only merit of 
the whole. 

What have I to do now, before quitting 
London ? Let me consider well, and have a 
plan of it, for next week, and attain something. 
— For once, enough ! 1 

[Times.] London, Monday, April 2, 1832. 

" These papers announce a death which may 
almost be considered an event in politics as 
well as in literature, — the celebrated Goethe 
died at Weimar on the 2 2d ult. He expired, 
without any apparent suffering, in his arm- 
chair, having a few minutes previously called 
for paper for the purpose of writing, and ex- 
pressed his delight at the arrival of spring. 
He had, however, for the last two years en- 

l The Carlyles left London on the 25th March, and 
after a few days in Liverpool and Dumfries returned to 
Craigenputtock in the middle of April. 



joyed little of his usual health, and had fallen 
off greatly in personal appearance. We believe 
that he had passed his 82d year. All Europe 
knows the literary era of Germany which com- 
menced with this distinguished man, which 
ends with him, and which may be considered 
as identified with his personal history." 

This came to me at Dumfries, on my first 
return thither. I had written to Weimar, 
asking for a Letter to welcome me home j and 
this was it. My Letter 1 would never reach its 
address ; the great and good Friend was no 
longer there ; had departed some seven days 
before. — Craigenputtock, 19th April, 1832. 

Tribula was a kind of threshing-machine ; 
a chest roughened with wood-bars, or iron or 
flint notches on the bottom, and so trailed 
by cattle back and forward over the ears of 
corn till the grain was hustled out of them. 
The driver sat on it; and (as among the 
modern Turks) might have a ladle wherein 
to catch the dung / 

Tribulatio is from this word; and so origin- 
ally signifies something like what we Scotch 
mean by a Heckelling ( Hatch elling) : use has 
made it honourable. 

The Fuller's was a great craft among the 

1 In regard to this letter see Correspondence of Goethe 
and Carlyle, p. 298, n. 



Romans, for they had no shirts (?), and on 
gala-days dressed all in white woolen. The 
smell of the Fullones was not the pleasantest : 
they were sent to work, therefore, in fields, 
remote from the nostrils of men. Their use 
of a certain Liquor was great : they had pots 
or jars set at street-corners to tempt the 
Public to produce it, at least to yield it 
freely. Thus instead of " Whitbread's Entire" 
might there be a sign-post of quite inverse 
quality : Somebody's " Effete." — Consider 
also the Chinese ; and sniff not at the wants 
and the ingenuity of poor man. 

It is proof of the height to which Anti- 
quity also had carried the art of Taxation, 
that Vespasian laid a Duty on these same 
Fuller's Pots ; so that whoso was pleased to 
set forth his urinal to the world must pay the 
Prince for it. — It was on occasion of Titus' 
reproaching him with this meanness, that old 
V. bid him smell a piece of the money pro- 
duced thereby, and said : Dulcis odor lucri ex 
requalibet. 1 — Works of the Learned (or rather 
Repub. of Letters), v. I. (150 &c) where lies 
some curious matter. 

Caxton printed in the Almonry of West- 

l Vespasian's words, according to Suetonius, in his 
Life of the Emperor, c. xxiii, were Atqui e lotio est. It 
is Juvenal who wrote : 

. . . Lucri bonus est odor ex re 
Qualibet. Sat. xiv. 204. 



minster Abbey (why there specially is not 
known) : hence, say some, our English 
Printers still call their workshop a Chapel. — 
(do. elsewhere) — 

I squelched my finger-nail (curing smoke 
in company with Pate Easton, at Scotsbrig ; 
audi effectually, I believe!): the nail is quite 
black, but sticks there until a new white one 
be formed under it ; the old black nail dead 
and worthless, yet performing a worthy sort 
of service : how like many a Social Institution 
of these days ! But, indeed, so it is ever ; as 
I have often enough remarked. 

A sneering, jeering Review of Hume's 
Essay on Human Nature in Repub. Lett. 1 for 
November 1739: to be farther looked into. 
The poor Reviewer no doubt imagined he 
had done a feat. How the Tables turn ! 

Saturday, Have now been here for a week : 

April 22 n <* 2 quite sickly, lazy, lost, stranded 

in a Juan Fernandez ; do not 

remember that I have passed many more 

l"The present State of the Republick of Letters," 
London, 1723-1736, was the chief literary journal of its 
time. In 1736 it was united with the " Literary Mag- 
azine," and published as "The History of the Works of 
the Learned." This ran from Jan., 1737, to Dec., 1743, 
and it. was in it that the review of Hume's Essay ap- 

2 In 1832 Saturday was the 21st of April. 



despicable or unjoyful or unprofitable weeks 
in my life. No work will forward with me. 
What a week ! — A day of it, this day, yet 
remains for thee : To work ! To work ! — 
Repent not uselessly ; only amend. — I have 
fasted (from bread) this breakfast time : may 
that be the beginning of better things. — Now 
for the " Sheffield Radical." 

Sunday Yesterday quite down-pressed, 
morning, over-powered (with bodily ob- 
struction chiefly) and worthless, or 
next to that. Did no work, that can be shown ; 
tho' I rather zealously attempted it. Again 
endeavour ! Times will mend. 

The whole thing I want to write seems 
lying in my mind; but I cannot get my eye 
on it. The Machine is lazy, languid; the 
motive Principle cannot conquer the inertia. 

A question arises, whether there ought to 
be, in a perfect society, any class of purely 
speculative men ? Whether all men should 
not be of active employment and habitude ; 
their speculation only growing out of their 
activity, and incidental thereto ? — 

The grand Pulpit is now the Press; the 
true Church (as I have said twenty times of 
late) is the Guild of Authors. How these 
two Churches and Pulpits (the velvet-cushion 
one and the metal-type one) are to adjust 



their mutual relations and cognate workings : 
this is a problem which some centuries may 
be taken up in solving. It is the deepest 
thing to be solved in these days. 

Every man that writes is writing a new 
Bible; or a new Apocrypha; to last for a 
week, or for a thousand years : he that con- 
vinces a man and sets him working is the 
doer of a miracle. [Strange language this : 
but it is as in the immigration of the North- 
men, or any other great world-revolution, 
two languages must get jumbled together, and 
old words get new meanings ; all things for 
a time being confused enough.] 

Ought any writing to be transacted with 
such intense difficulty ? Does not the True 
always flow lightly from the lips and pen ? 
I am not clear in this matter; which is a 
deeply practical one with me. Consider the 
following also : 

The True indeed flows lightly ; but how 
stands it with the mixture of True and Un- 
true (or Unknown), wherein the latter ele- 
ment has to be continually eliminated, and 
elaborated, or rejected ? — 

One thing, at all events, is plain: Take 
not too much care about thy writing, or about 
aught else that belongs to thee. Know that 
it is intrinsically trivial (as thyself ait) and 



will soon perish, — let vanity whisper what she 
may. Quick, then ; thro' with it ! Learn 
to do it honestly (learn what that means) ; 
perfectly thou wilt never do it. 

Time flies; while thou balancest a sen- 
tence, thou art nearer the final Period. 

Cast thy thought forth (so soon as thou 
hast thought it) with some fearlessness : let it 
sink into the great mass of Action (under 
which rolls Eternity !) : let it sink there, since 
such was its allotment. Dissolved (what we 
call Dead), the Life of it will still go on work- 
ing there. Deny thyself; whatsoever is 
thyself, consider it as nothing. 

This, however, I must say for myself: It 
is seldom or never the Phraseology, but al- 
ways the Insight, that fails me, and retards 

On, then; on! why stand describing how 
thou shouldst move ; forward, and move, in 
any way. 

April 28t. h (Saturday). Finished the day be- 
fore yesterday a 
Leichenrede on Goethe. 1 Stiff and starched, 
and a poor expression of my feelings. 

Yesterday wrote to John, &c. To-day am 
for these villainous " Corn Law Rhymes " 
again : a task that is beginning to get hate- 

1 " Funeral discourse," ' Death of Goethe,' published 
in the ' New Monthly Magazine ' ; Essays, iv. 



ful to me; so small, so unmanageable — in 
the way I have taken it up. 

N. B. Be very cautious how you take up 
anything. I have a strange reluctance to re- 
nounce the road I have entered on, how 
stony soever, how roundabout soever. You 
do not like to turn back : On then ! 

Thus does a Time pass, and with the time 
its man. The man who can live and work 
thro' two Times, and welcome a Palingenesia 
after mourning for a Death, is rarely to be 
met with — T[iec\k. 

When the State Cauldron leaks, there is 
nothing but a hissing, and foul ashy steaming 
and sputtering; the social Cookery can no 
longer be carried on. It must be mended, 
then ; let it be mended. Easy to say, difficult 
to do ! There are Tinkers that in mending 
one hole make a couple. But especially, if 
your whole Cauldron has ceased to be metal 
at all, and become one thick laminated mass 
of rust and corrugation, without heart or soli- 
dity anywhere, how then is the soldering-iron 
to be applied ; what Tinker so cunning as to 
operate with effect there. They do it in this 
way : mend with putty. Each mending lasts 
for a week, and the outbreaks get more and 
more frequent. At last when the mending has 
become a daily and hourly matter, and per- 


petually there is a puttying and never an end 
of leakage, but ever as the puttying proceeds 
on the one hand, the dripping and hissing 
proceeds on the other, — some indignant State- 
Tinker says, Putty will no longer do, but they 
must have metal cloutings ; and so sets him 
to rivet and to solder, and smites resolutely 
with hammer and punch on the old rust 
cauldron : what is the issue then ? Ask Earl 
Grey with his Reform Bill 1 

Gotf? Sauerteig. 1 

Sometime about the 4 th of May, finished, 
rapidly enough, a Paper on the Corn Law 
Rhymer, very little to my mind. It still lies 
here ; intended for Napier, who however may 
well be excused for rejecting it, so intensely 
" speculative-radical " is the whole strain of it. 
Perhaps times may have a little changed with 
him, even during the last fortnight. — 

Purposed next to draw up an Encyclopedia 

1 Gottfried Sauerteig (" Leaven," "Yeast") is one of 
the names, like Teufelsdrockh, invented by Carlyle, as a 
transparent symbolic cloak for his own individuality. In 
his Essay on Biography, he thus introduces this person- 
age. 4 Here, however, ... we may as well insert some 
singular sentences on the importance and significance 
of Reality, as they stand written for us in Professor Gott- 
fried Sauerteig's ALsthetische Springwiirzel [Aesthetic Cas- 
tor-oilplant]; a work, perhaps, as yet new to most Eng- 
lish readers. The Professor and Doctor is not a man 
whom we can praise without reservation. . . Neverthe- 
less in his crabbed, one-sided way he sometimes hits 
masses of the truth.' Essays, iv. 55. 



memoir of Lord Byron (for N. and purely in 
compliance with his request) ; had accordingly 
jotted down some pages of it : but now an 
uncertainty arises whether my service (as I 
explained the possibility of rendering it) is 
wanted ; which uncertainty will soon become 
a certainty that said service cannot be had. 
I had no manner of call to speak there about 
Lord Byron ; and had much rather eschew it. 
— I am now for a long Essay on Goethe to 
be printed in the Foreign Quarterly Review : 
do not in the least see any way thro' it ; feel 
only that there is much to be said, or repeated. 
Have been idle (from xhepen) for twelve days, 
and must alter very soon. — Bulwer Lytton l 
writes me, euphuistically announcing that the 
Leichenrede, on ' our Greatest that has de- 
parted ' is at press, and will be forwarded as 
Proofsheet soon: I partly expect it to-night. 
Very unsatisfactory was the whole to me. On, 
however, taking small heed of it! — 

Went down to Scotsbrig on Thursday to 
settle about family affairs there. All was 
already clear for settlement, by the wise pru- 
dence of him who had left us. His last Will 
I read over, with a sad and obstructed feel- 
ing, yet as a necessary task. All was meth- 
odical, just, decisive. He divides his property 
equally among the five children who had 
helped by their toil to earn it. At first, I 
l Bulwer was editor of the New Monthly Magazine. 


can remember he was for introducing John 
and me also ; but I dissuaded him, inasmuch 
as our share was already received, I having 
been educated, and John thro' me. A sad 
and earnest look was the answer to this pro- 
posal: but I now found, for the first time, 
that it had been complied with. — All the im- 
movable property (some Houses in Eccle- 
fechan, yielding between twenty and thirty 
Pounds annually) are left in life-rent to my 
Mother; reverting finally to the other five. 
— My two Brothers valued what was at 
Scotsbrig, I acting as Umpire and Father on 
the occasion; the whole was managed last 
Saturday, not without some study and dis- 
cussion, yet in a spirit which ought to satisfy 
me; without covetousness or ill-nature ap- 
pearing on any side, which in such cases 
I understand usually do appear violently 
enough. The valuation was somewhere near 
the verge of ^600 : James and his two Sisters 
made an arrangement, which is to last on 
trial for a year ; our good Mother, who how- 
ever is independent, will stay with them, and 
keep them together. They are not foolish, 
far from it, as people go ; but they are young ; 
and no community can subsist without a gov- 
ernor. — Scotsbrig is much changed for me; 
yet the place where of all others I feel among 
my loved ones. At home here, I am with 
my loved one, and among my tools : other- 



wise it has never yet become homelike to. me. 
Let us be content ; let us hope. Der Mensch 
ist eigentlich auf Hoffnung gestellt. This is 
the 'Place of Hope.'— 1 

On Sunday evening I went over with Alick 
and Jamie to see our " Aunt Fanny." Found 
her in a miserable hut (named Knowehead, 
or some such thing) ; a vehement, fiercely- 
assiduous and fiercely- thrifty old woman; 
very dirty in apparel and environment ; not 
without a touch of antique courtesy; and 
much flattered by the visit. She is now in 
her eightieth year; the last survivor of the 
past Time. Her memory seemed excellent, 
but she would not talk to questions. A nat- 
ural garrulity had become heightened to end- 
less copiousness by old age. She described 
to me when and where she first saw her Hus- 
band; stepping Middlebie Burn, with a blue 
jacket and doe-skin breeches, a proper man 
to look upon. 2 Also, with infinite minute- 
ness, her journey to Peebles, rencontres and 
adventures at the Crook Inn; all which 
stood perfect in her memory as things of 
yesterday. It was in 1773 that she was 
wedded. The beginning of the apprentice- 

1 " ' Man is properly speaking based upon Hope,' he 
has no other possession but Hope; this world of his is 
emphatically the Place of Hope." Sartor Resartus, 
Book ii. ch. vii. 

2 Her husband's name was William Brown. See 
Reminiscences, i. 32. 



ships she could not date with accuracy. She 
was six years older than my Father. In such 
a scene and with so many auditors there was 
little to be gathered from her. I partly cal- 
culate on seeing her again, when her son and 
she have removed to their Farm. He (" Wull," 
a strange, half-inspired, half-idiotic character, 
miserly, rich, to be wondered at and laughed 
at) stands in the strictest subjection to her ; 
is not without awe of her, as of a really su- 
perior mind. In all points spiritual, the 
withered old woman is clearly stronger than 
the lumpish, pausing, prosing man. 

On Monday morning I came off hither. 
Vague rumours of the loss of the Reform 
Bill had been circulating in our remote cir- 
cle ; these at Dumfries were made clear cer- 
tainties. 1 The people have been burning (in 
effigy) their Patriot King ; a Butcher at An- 
nan had been put in jail for beheading him. 
All the things were in a flutter and fluster at 
Dumfries, politically speaking ; one of those 
tout est perdu's, which occur often enough in 

1 On the 7th of May the new Reform Bill was before 
the House of Lords, and the Ministry were defeated on 
an amendment. On the 9th Lord Grey and his col- 
leagues resigned. Then followed the Duke of Welling- 
ton's ineffectual attempt to form a ministry. On the 
15th Lord Grey resumed office, and on the 4th of June 
the Bill was finally carried in the House of Lords by a 
majority of eighty-four. 



men's affairs. Rien rf est perdu ; il n'y avait 
rien a gagner. 

Poor M'Diarmid 1 amused me with his 
soap-bubble frothing. A wild little man; 
dark in the face; anger and vehemence, 
trepidation, indignation, in determination ; a 
look too as if he still were not angry enough : 
wholly as if a posse of sheriff's officers had 
come upon him, and were selling his bed. 
Three times, tho' sad enough in heart under 
the chill May moonshine, in driving home, 
I laughed outright to remember him. The 
foolish Editor that he is! A snuff drop 
hanging at his nose, smoke (not fire) in his 
eye, distraction in his aspect: and all for 
what? Because a batch of Incapables had 
been turned to the street, and a batch of 
Capables, perhaps a shade more knavish 
than the other had been substituted in their 
room. — Our withers are unwrung. 

The question now arises which no one is 
prepared to answer : what will follow next ; 
what is to be done next ? I comforted poor 
Mac that " King Arthur " (so he would name 
poor Wellington) would not try governing by 
the bayonet; would study to seat himself 
firmly on the coachbox, and then drive — 
whither the people forced him : at all events 
would drive ; not sit flourishing the whip and 

1 Editor of The Dumfries Courier. 


stirring no hair's breadth, as the others had 
done for eighteen months long. To me (who 
know nothing whatever of these latest doings) 
it seems not unlikely that Arthur will pass a 
Bill, perhaps very like the other, perhaps 
better. Let him take his own mind : me or 
mine he cannot help much or hinder much. 
One great comfort I shall have : talk will be 
changed into actions the country will not 
die of starvation, but at worst by grapeshot 
and gunshot. — 

So then our " Friends " are all on the 
pavement ; ousted in one short week ! One 
Tuesday M'Diarmid crows stout defiance, 
triumphant note of victory; next Tuesday, 
the crow has become a screaming cackle; 
a kite has pounced down and eaten up the 
sun. Lord Chancellor Brougham, that vir- 
tuous man Viscount Althorp, the incompara- 
ble Earl Grey, Lord Advocate and all the 
rest — must take the road in such weather as 
chances to be blowing. — For Jeffrey (to 
whom alone the slightest interest attaches 
me) I rather esteem it a happiness. Brougham 
but "bides his time;" and, if he live, will 
come again, not whig but radical. Earl Grey 
deserves his fate : he set the interests of Eng- 
land and those of his own small fractional 
(unjustifiable) part of England on the same 
level; would in his own way save both or 
neither; has in consequence lost only him- 

18 273 


self. Can the man not see that Lordhood is 
becoming obsolete, that Manhood is hence- 
forth the only order ? Be he reputed honest 
(I believe him to be so, whiggishly speaking) : 
and with that character let him retire from 
the public scene forever and a day. 

Or is this the state of it ? Granting the 
King to be an Imbecile and Nonentity, has 
he changed so much for the worse ? He gets 
a professed Dugald Dalgetty or Soldier of 
Fortune, able to fight, ready to fight on any 
side, for his pay : he parts with a ' Soldier of 
Principle,' but who unhappily did not know 
what his principle was, or who had two in- 
compatible principles, and so stood ready to 
fight on some side, could he have seen which; 
but unable to fight on any. — 

Poor " Patriot King"! I never cheered 
him or heeded him; only once laughed at 
him (as I witnessed his Coronation proces- 
sion); and now do not upbraid him. The 
wisest man in the world might pause in that 
situation : what shall the foolishest do ? 

The only Reform is in thyself. Know this 
O Politician, and be moderately political. 

For me I have never yet done any one po- 
litical act; not so much as the signing of a 



petition. My case is this : I comport myself 
wholly like an alien ; like a man who is not 
in his own country ; whose own country lies 
perhaps a century or two distant. When the 
time comes, should it ever come, that I can 
do any good in such coming forward, then let 
me not hang back. Meanwhile pay thy taxes 
to his Majesty and the rest, so long as they 
can force thee ; the instant they cannot force 
thee, that instant cease to pay. This has 
been my political principle for many a year. 
The passing or the failing of innumerable Re- 
form Bills might not alter it much : money is 
paid to him who does a service worth money; 
obedience is due to him who governs : to him 
who wears the governor's mask, the mask of 
obedience, — as to the ass in lion's skin (who 
in any case could kick) — while you are near 
him. — 

And now a truce to Politics. All this I 
have written down, this Wednesday, May 
16th, 1832 years: knowing that it is trivial; 
also that some day even these transitory 
phrases will have meaning. 

Reminiscence. Two nights before leaving 
London I went down to the House of Com- 
mons with W. Fraser, who however could not 
get admittance for himself and me ; a thing I 
partly rejoiced at. We went to a Club house 
in S* James's, the first and only one I was 



ever in. Waited also afterwards a while in 
the Lobby of the " House " : while here saw 
Macaulay (Thomas Babington) come out, 
and buy two oranges; a sign, Fraser said, 
that he was going to speak; which accord- 
ingly next day showed that he had done. 
Macaulay, whom I noted strictly, is a short 
squat thickset man of vulgar but resolute en- 
ergetic appearance. Fair-complexioned, keen 
gray eyes, a large cylindrical head set close 
down between two strong round shoulders; 
the brow broad and fast-receding, the crown 
flat — perhaps it was baldish. Inclines al- 
ready to corpulence, tho' I suppose he is not 
five-and-thirty, of which age or a somewhat 
higher he wore the air. The globular will one 
day be his shape, if he continue. I likened 
him, in my own mind, to a managing Iron- 
master (I know not well why); with vigorous 
talent for that or some such business (on what 
scale fortune may order) ; with little look of 
talent for anything higher. He is the young 
man of most force at present before the world. 
Successful he may be to great lengths, or not 
at all, according as the times turn: mean- 
while, the limits of his worth are discernible 
enough. Great things lie not in him. It is 
a fatal circumstance that he rests satisfied with 
being a Critic, feels not the want of any force 
belonging to himself, wherewith he might do 
somewhat ; has yet attained to no belief, and 



apparently is not wretched for not having any. 
The moral nature of the man I take to be in- 
trinsically common ; hence, if no otherwise, 
were his intellectual nature marked as com- 
mon also. He is the only young man of any 
gift, at this period, who is a whig; another 
characteristic. He may be heard of, and 
loudly; but what is being heard of? Who- 
soever beats a drum is heard of. Let us 
hope too that M. will gain better insight, a 
clear, manly foundation, and be what he might 
be : "a man among clothes-screens." 

As for Fraser's Clubhouse, it was a splen- 
did mansion, with dining-rooms (where 
whiskered hungry people, Irishmen mostly, 
sat devouring viands and drinking cham- 
pagne), drawing-rooms full of sofas, pier 
glasses, periodicals &c &c. We went and 
lounged in one for a quarter of an hour. It 
is called the Windham Club, I think. The 
house had belonged to some dissipated dis- 
tracted Irish Nobleman, who had married a 
woman of infamous character, still living, 
and sinning, her husband having made the 
world rid of him some years before. 

The Clubs are a curious feature of Lon- 
don : the principle of Sociality being quite 
gone, that of Gregariousness is there in full 
action. Men combine together, professing 
no other object than that they may have 


cheaper food and drink and accommodation 
than separately could be come at. They 
have all grown up since I was in London 
before. A more significant phenomenon 
than is usually recognized in them. 

But here, my paper being done, let me 
close. Joy and sorrow ; irreparable losses ; 
toils fruitless or fruitful : a share of all lies 
noted in this little Tome. Onwards are we 
going, ever onwards: Eternity alone can 
give back what Time daily takes away. I 
am Fatherless now, (thank God, not yet 
Motherless) : be all that remains the dearer. 
Improve, cherish, laudably work with what- 
ever Time gives and leaves. Gedenke zu 
leben ! 1 Farewell ye loved ones ! I have 
still zu leben. 

l " Resolve to live! " 


Autograph Letter. 

Cl^^ \ lSjL-ffr. 

J^J^i te^ ,^7 fc^* j *-k '<— ^f! 

7 ? ")o ^ fy^ ^"fc W °^\p\J *£< 

°V«~^. *- ^w*CTi KL^-y, /V- ^~o-, 





w^ ^v^T Vfi 




• ^ 

; <0 i 


Chelsea, 25 June, 1862. 

11 Seekest thou great things, seek them not 


/ could do no good with your ' ' Tragedy, " after 
never so much endeavour, it depends on Playhouse 
Managers, etc. etc.; — and is, I must say, likely to 
have been an unreasonable, tho" 1 innocent attempt, 
on the part of a young man, inexperienced in Life, 
much more in the suitable ways of Delineating 
and Expounding what Life is and should be. 

Forgive my plainness of Speech. But it is my 
standing advice to all young persons who trace in 
themselves a superior capacity of mind, to select, 
beyond all other conditions, a silent course of ac- 
tivity ; — and to disbelieve totally the babble of re- 
views and newspapers, and loud clamour of Non- 
sense everywhere prevalent, that " Literature" 
(even if one were qualified) is the truly noble hu- 
man career. Far other, very far ! since you ask 
my opinion. The greatest minds I have known, 
or have authentically heard of, have not been the 
speaking ones at all, — much less in these loud 
times ; raging with palaver, and with so little 
else, from sea to sea! — 

In very great haste (wishing you well, not ill), 

T Carlyle. 



Action and Morality, 228 

Actions, great, sometimes histori- 
cally barren, 171; smallest, some- 
times very fruitful, 171 

Adam, fable concerning, 81, 82 

Advertising, Carlyle upon, 208, 
209 ; amount spent by two book- 
sellers annually in, 208 

Aikin, Lucy, " Memoirs of Queen 
Elizabeth," 4 

Air, always hope in the, 106 

Age, every, full of vicissitudes to its 
people, 141 

Alexander, remark by Carlyle con- 
cerning, 7; compared with 
Hambden, 7 ; expedition of, 
compared with St. Paul's mis- 
sion, 171 

Alfieri, on genius, 30 

Alison, Rev. Archibald, " Essay 
on Taste," 84; criticism of, 84 

"Anatomy of Melancholy," ex- 
tracts from, 85; anecdote con- 
cerning, 98 

Antimachus Clarius, on Plato, 124 

Areopagitica, Milton's, Carlyle on, 
2 9> 3° 

Aristocracy, a true, wanted, 179 

Aristotle, as to Action andThought, 
81; upon solitude, 122 {note 2) ; 
"Philosophy" of, contrasted with 
" Sermon on the Mount," 171 

Arlesford, Battle of, defeat of Roy- 
alists at, 9 ; location of, 9 

Art, is, higher than Religion ? 204 ; 
possibility of, at this era, 215; 
materials of, everywhere, 227, 

Ascham, Roger, birth and death, 
89; tutor to Queen Elizabeth, 
89; his chief and other works, 
89; life of, by Dr. Johnson, 89; 
"a good sort of man and well 
worth study," 89 

Bacon, on solitude, 122, 123 
Badams, friend of Irving, calls on 

Carlyle, 194 ; described by Mrs. 

Montagu 195 (see note 1) 

Ballhorn, stanza from Golden A B 
C, 118 (for trans, see p. 177) 

Barclay, John, 25 (see note) 

Bardili, his "Rational Realism," 
112; similar to Malebranche ? 112 

Baretti, short account of, 130, 131 ; 
adventure of, in London, 131 ; 
his works and character, 131 (see 
also note) 

Beaumont (and Fletcher), drama- 
tists, disappointing to Carlyle, 
31; criticism of 31, 32 

Bentham, Jeremy, significance of, 
171; senility of, 236 

"Benvenuto Cellini," criticism 
upon, 186 

Berkenhout, Dr., his "Literary 
History of England," 147 

Biography, the only history, 238 

Bohmen, ex-king of, comes to Lon- 
don, takes Covenant, and re- 
ceives pension, n 

Book, by Carlyle, description of 
projected, 29 

Books (French), to be read, 52, 
53; where met with, 52; (Ger- 
man) recommended in Herder, 
75» 7°> 77; recommended by Mr. 
Aitken, 121 ; more, to be read, 
123, 127; more, to be seen, 142, 
143 ; list of English, 146 ; list 
of, copied from Croker's Bos- 
well's Johnson, 242, 243 

Boscovich, Kant reminds Carlyle 
of, 112; died mad, 130 

Bossuet, " Oraisons funebres," 10 

Bouterwek, his "System of Vir- 
tuality," 112 

Bo wring, Sir John, meets Carlyle, 
196 (see note 4) 

Bradock-Down, Battle of, 6 ; loca- 
tion of, 6; defeat of the Par- 
liament at, 6; indifferently de- 
scribed, 6 

Brandes, Johann Christian, " Au- 
tobiography," 121 

Brentford, Royalist general, de- 
feated at Arlesford by Waller, 
9 ; rescued from Donnington, 10 



Brerewood, what of? 25 

Brewster, Sir David, meets Car- 
lyle, 256; Carlyle's opinion of, 

Brothers, Richard, 216 (see also 
note 2) 

Brougham, Lord, Carlyle prophe- 
sies concerning, 273 

Browne, Sir T., his " Religio Me- 
dici," "Urne Burial," and 
"Vulgar Errors," 67; Carlyle's 
opinion of, 68 ; midway between 
poetand orator, 69 ; his '* Religio 
Medici" most readable, 69 ; errs 
in giving himself too good a 
character, 69; account of, 90; 
knighted by Charles II, 90 

Bruyere, La, characterization of, 
of, 126 

Buller, Mrs., verses to, by Dr. 
Leyden, 65 

Burgess, Dr. , who was ? 1 

Burns, contrasted with Scott, 127; 
Carlyle finishes a paper on, 129 

Burrow, Sir J., 29 

Burton, quotations from, 85, 86; 
little to be learned about him, 
90 ; short account of 90 ; firm 
believer in Astrology, 90 ; anec- 
dote of his life at Oxford, 01 ; 
quotations from, 97; Carlyle's 
characterization of, 99 

Byron, a "kraftmann," at his 
death, 17; Carlyle's opinion of 
him, 71 (see also note) ; a brief 
definition of, 230 

Cabbage, the, characterization of, 

Caesar, remark by Carlyle concern- 
ing, 7 ; compared with Hambden, 
7; Hadrian's epitaph on, 123 

Capel, Lord, 17 

Carisbrook Casde, Charles I con- 
fined in, 15; treaty with Scots 
signed by Charles in, 15 

Carlyle (Mrs.), Jane Welsh, arrives 
in London, 21 (see note 1) 

Carlyle, Thomas, begins first note- 
book while reading Clarendon's 
History, 1 ; invokes fortune, 1 ; 
finishes third volume of Claren- 
don, 19; ill health of, 54; 
despondency of, 55; rejection of 
suicide by, 56 (see note, p. 57) ; 

Carlyle, Thomas — continued. 
estimate of true affection, 58; 
to leave Kinnaird, 58; hopes of 
Wilhelm Meister (translation), 
58; Schiller, Part II, sent to Lon- 
don, 54; Schiller, Part III, be- 
gun, 59; effect of drugs on, 59 ; 
scribbling, not writing Schiller, 
59; anxiety about Schiller (the 
book), 59; farewell to 1823, 59, 
60; has trouble with the intro- 
duction to Schiller, 60; at Hod- 
dam Hill, 64; despondency of, 
64, 65, 66 ; marries, 67 ; finishes 
" Anatomy of Melancholy," 98 ; 
doubtful what to say concerning 
it, 98; sums up Burton and his 
book, 98, 99 ; on a diseased liver, 
and virtue as its own reward, 
103; finishes article for "Edin- 
burgh Review," 140; to see Jef- 
frey at Dumfries, 141 ; thinks 
seriously of discussing Martin 
Luther, 142 ; proposes to write 
an essay on Metaphors, 142 ; 
criticizes Political Economists, 
144; is occupied writing a " His- 
tory of German Literature," 147 
(see note) ; comments on his 
difficulties in doing so, 148 ; re- 
bukes himself, 148, 149; on the 
origin of quarrels, 149, 150; has 
"done with the Germans,'' 150; 
inquires how much truth is in 
them, 150; gets rid of Material- 
ism, 151 ; inquires into the na- 
ture of a miracle, 151 ; asks what 
is poetry, 151 ; laments his lack 
of memory, 151 ; doubts if he 
shall succeed, 152, cannot judge 
of his own talent, 152; writes 
letter to Dumfries "Courier," 153 
(see note) ; gets on badly with a 
speculation on History, 154 ; 
is asked to write a life of Goethe, 
154 (see note) ; also of Luther, 
x 54> J 55; his sentiment as re- 
gards a life of Luther, 155; is 
offered an annuity by Jeffrey, 
but refuses, 155 (see note) ; com- 
ments upon this, 155 ; confesses 
his error about independence, 
156; begins second volume of 
" German Literary History," 
156; his impression concerning 



Carlyle, Thomas — continued. 
it, 156; on the death of his sister 
Margaret, 157 ; on the Saint- 
Simonians, 158 (see also note 
2) ; failure of project as to " His- 
tory of German Literature," 163 ; 
reproaches himself, 163 (see 
note 2) ; has glimpses of the 
power of spiritual union, 164; 
exhorts himself to be up and 
doing, 165, 166; writes "The 
Beetle," 170; undefined aim of, 
170; criticizes " Fraser's Maga- 
zine," 170; refers to John Wil- 
son ("Christopher North"), 
170; declares printing not to be 
the symbol of literature, 170, 
171 ; compares great and small 
actions, 171 ; quotes examples, 
171; compares moral and in- 
tellectual nature of man, 171; 
defines the significance of Christ, 
171 ; defines the place of Jeremy 
Bentham, 171; pities England, 
172; contrasts Utilitarians and 
Whigs, 182; has no patience 
with Dilettanti, 172 ; defines the 
Sin of the age, 172; condemns 
the idle, 172; visit of the Jeffreys 
to, 173 (see note) ; criticizes 
Jeffrey at length, 173, 174, 175; 
begins "Sartor Resartus," 176; 
on Seclusion and Meditation, 
176; on Silence, 176; as to 
Words, 176; as to Silence and 
Speech, 177; as to Secrecy, 177; 
"On Clothes," 177; receives 
the ornamented " Schiller" from 
Goethe, 177 (see note i,p. 178) ; 
sends the "Clothes "to Fraser, 
178 (see note 2) ; comments on 
political state of England, 178, 
179; divine right of squires equal 
to that of kings, 179; as to prop- 
erty, 179; as to Art and Poetry, 
180; the logical import of life, 
180; analyzes his condition, 181; 
hears from his brother John, 
182; criticizes Taylor, 182; on a 
stanza by Mrs. Carlyle, 182; 
trouble with " Teufelsdreck," 
183 (see notes 1, 2) ; refers to 
Goethe, 183; literary prospects 
of, 183 ; on the state of Europe, 
183; on the state of England, 

Carlyle, Thomas — continued. 
184 ; on the frame of society, 
184 ; as to the only sovereigns 
of the world, 184 ; as to divine 
right in kings, 184, 185; the 
derivation of honor-titles, past 
and future, 185; reliance on 
God, 185; comment on Jeffrey, 
185; criticizes Benvenuto Cellini, 
186; on Pope's "Odyssey of 
Homer," 187; Homer or Shakes- 
peare the greater ? 187; inquires 
as to constitution of a Whole, 
187 ; as to the true Heroic Poems, 
188 ; seeks the true relation of 
moral to poetic genius, 188; 
characterizes the words of Jesus, 
189; ends the first Note-book at 
Craigenputtock, 189; exhorts 
himself, 189; leaves Craigen- 
puttock for London, 191 (see note 
1) ; account of journey, 191, 192, 
193 ; calls on the Lord Advocate, 
193; is advised to try Murray 
with " Sartor " and sees him, 
194; comment on the meeting, 
194 ; meets the Badamses, 194 ; 
renews acquaintance with the 
Montagues, 194 (see note 3) ; 
calls on Mrs. Montagu, 195 (see 
notes 1 and 2) ; calls on Long- 
man's with Napier's letter, 196; 
meets with refusal of "German 
Literary History," 196; renews 
acquaintance with the Stracheys 
and Bowring, 196; sees Allan 
Cunningham, 196 ; writes to 
Goethe, 197; visits Shooter's 
Hill, 197 (see note 1) ; breakfasts 
with the Jeffreys, 198 ; sees 
Edward Irving, 198; appoints to 
dine with Drummond, 198 (see 
note 4) ; meets Godwin, 198 ; 
characterization of Godwin, 
199; ill health of, 200; journal 
writing discontinued by, 200; in- 
quiry as to education, 200 ; 
notes the arrival of Mrs. Carlyle, 
201 ; comments on " Sartor Re- 
sartus," 201 (see note 1) ; meets 
Gustave d'Eichthal, the Saint- 
Simonian, 201 ; notes loss of Re- 
form Bill, 202; notes illness of 
Jeffrey, 202 ; meets Sir J. Macin- 
tosh and describes him, 202, 

2 9 ] 


Carlyle, Thomas — continued. 
203; refers to Dr. Fleming, 203 
(see note 1) ; inquires as to the 
true duty of a man, 203 , as to 
Reverence the need of men, 
203 ; complains of stupidity, 
204; inquiry into dictum by 
Goethe and Schiller that art is 
higher than religion, 204; notes 
tendency to speculate on men, 
not man, 205 ; comments on the 
general condition of things, 206, 
207: complains that good shoes 
cannot be had in London, 207 
(see note) ; states the universal 
problem of man, 208; notes a 
harder problem, to be found in 
London, 208; upon advertising 
ox puffing, 208,209; caus Lon- 
don the Goshen of quacks, 209 ; 
on how to remedy things, 209 ; 
on the size of London, 209, 210; 
notes extravagant price of po- 
tatoes, 210; comments on the 
hurry of life in London, 210; 
notes the isolation of life in Lon- 
don, 210; on the want of Gov- 
ernment in, 211 ; on the torpidity 
of the Soul, 211 (see note 1) ; to 
write for the "Edinburgh Re- 
view," 212; as to a course of lec- 
tures in London, 212 {note 1) ; 
inquires as to province of oral 
teaching, 212; avers London to 
be ignorant of art, 212 ; as to 
eloquence in himself, 212; upon 
Hazlitt's "Table Talk," 213 
(see note 3) ; dines with Fon- 
blanque, 213; describes him, 
213 ; receives Allan Cunning- 
ham, 214 ; analyzes him, 214 ; 
as to Sir Walter Scott, 214 ; upon 
the advantage of the pulpit, 215 ; 
as to the meaning of symbol, 
215; on the possibility of Art at 
this era, 215; "where is to- 
morrow?" 215; classifies so- 
ciety, 215, 216; note on Richard 
Brothers, 216; meets Charles 
Lamb at Enfield, 217; opinion 
of Lamb, 217, 218, 219 (see 
note 1, p. 217, and note 1, p. 
218) ; on the difficulty of obtain- 
ing the truth, 217; notes wild 
riots in Bristol, 219 (see notes 1, 

Carlyle, Thomas — continued. 
2, p. 220) ; has a " striking ar- 
ticle " to write, but finds it " un- 
speakably " difficult, 220 ; gen- 
eral apprehension of cholera 
unshared by, 221 (see note 1) ; 
as to "Life "and "Existence," 
221; the "hohe Bedeutung des 
Entsagen," 221 (see note 2) ; 
conception of Immortality de- 
pends on that of Time, 222 ; 
laments the absence of" Sports," 
222; upon education, 222, 223; 
upon the best and the worst 
educated man, 223 ; prophesies 
the union of authors, 223 ; as to 
the end of the world, 223; the 
Cockney the most ignorant 
creature of his class, 224; on the 
date and origin of playing cards, 
224; on "Merelles," 224, 225; 
idle and out of sorts, 225 ; relates 
origin of Sadler's Well, 225; 
finds life sad and stern, 226; 
longs for the end, 226 ; meets Mr. 
(later Sir Henry) Taylor, 226; 
visited by Glen, 226 ; characteri- 
zation of, and advice, to Glen, 

226, 227; inseparability (for man) 
of evil and good, 226, 227; finds 
materials of Art everywhere, but 
not the artist to embody them, 

227, 228; notes arrival of cholera 
at Sunderland 228 ; urges him- 
self to work, 228; "the noble- 
ness of Silence," 228 ; as to 
Thinking and Thoughts, 228 ; 
as to Morality and Action, 228, 
229 ; perfect morality not an ob- 
ject of consciousness, 229 ; fin- 
ishes the " Characteristics," 
230; his opinion of it, 230; de- 
fines Byron, 230; reads Croker's 
Boswell's Johnson, 230; pur- 
poses an essay on it, 230 ; diffi- 
culty in writing the "Character- 
istics," 230, 231 ; engages with 
Lardner to furnish a " History 
of German Literature," 231 ; 
difficulty concerning it, 231 ; 
pestered by magazine editors, 
231 ; comments on the strange 
state of literature, 231, 232 ; as 
to Bulwer Lytton, 232; feeling 
as to Tait and his new Radical 



Carlyle, Thomas — continued. 
magazine, 232 ; as to Fraser and 
his magazine, 232 ; a rule for writ- 
ing, 232 ; writes for the " Athen- 
aeum," 232; dislikes being ad- 
vertised, 232 ; blames himself for 
writing for Dilke, 233 ; writes to 
his brother John in Rome, 233 ; 
proposes article on the author 
of the Corn Law Rhymes, 233 ; 
remarks scarcity of ideas in Lon- 
don, 233 ; " Sartor" still unpub- 
lished, 233 ; indifferent as to the 
publication of it, 234; meets 
Abraham Hayward, 234; Hay- 
ward's service to, 234 ; dines 
with Hayward, 235 ; describes 
the evening, 235 ; meets Sir 
Alexander Johnston, 235 ; char- 
acterizes Macaulay, 236; epito- 
mizes Rogers, 236 ; opinion of 
Moore, 236; on Bentham, 236; 
seeks to visit Dr. Johnson's 
places of abode, 237 ; difficulty 
of finding places in London, 
237 ; notes the need of a lending 
library in London, 237 (see note 
2) ; sees that biography is the 
only history, 238; the aspect 
of the world to, 238 ; quotes 
epitaph from Johnson, 238 (see 
note 2); quotes "Dies Irae," 
239 et seq. ; comments on Parson 
Hackman, 243 ; reads Hazlitt's 
" Liber Amoris," 243, 244 ; 
ridicules it, 244 ; as to Dr. Camp- 
bell, 244 ; meets Mr. Shepherd 
(Unitarian parson), 244 ; de- 
scribes him, 245; characterizes 
Unitarians, 245 ; St. Paul's or 
" Paradise Lost " the more neces- 
sary? 245; finds Franklin's defi- 
nition of man in Boswell, 245; 
avers literature to be priceless, 
245 ; writes unsatisfactory intro- 
duction to essay on Johnson, 245, 
246 ; sadness of mirth not based 
on earnestness, 246 ; receives Jef- 
rey, 246; as to 0'Connell,247; as 
to the Scotch, English, and Irish 
courts, 247; convinced that 
English law must be re-made, 
248; meets Gustave d'Eichthal 
again, 248 ; opinion of him, 248 ; 
sees Arthur Buller, 248 ; dines 

Carlyle, Thomas — continued. 
with Fraser in Regent Street, 
248; meets Allan Cunningham, 
James Hogg, and Lockhart, 
248; describes Lockhart, 249; 
describes Gait, 249 ; describes 
Hogg (the "Ettrick Shep- 
herd"), 250; condemns the 
evening spent with Fraser, 251, 
252 ; chronicles death of his fa- 
ther, 252 (see note 1) ; finishes 
paper on Johnson, "not wholly 
without worth," 252; investi- 
gates Diderot, 253 ; quotes con- 
cerning Diderot from the " Biog- 
raphie Universelle," 253; as to 
Bishop Douglas, 254; breaks with 
Lardner, 254 ; settles with Fraser 
about essay on Johnson, 255 ; 
criticizes " Fraser's Magazine," 
255 ; as to the state of book- 
selling, 255; longs (with Mrs. 
Carlyle) to be home, 255; likes 
London, but not the climate, 
256 ; quotes remark of Sir N. H. 
Nicholas as to booksellers, 256 ; 
describes Sir David Brewster, 
256; meets Leigh Hunt through 
"Characteristics," 256; de- 
scribes him, 257 ; writes to John 
Carlyle at Rome, 258; calls on 
Schlegel, but hopes not to see 
him, 258 ; terms Schlegel a liter- 
ary Gigman, 258; meets William 
Maginn, 258 ; describes him, 258 
(see also note) ; as to the origin 
of " Fraser's Magazine," 259 ; 
leaves London, 259 (see note) ; 
hears of the death of Goethe, 
259 ; realizes his last letter to 
Goethe would arrive too late, 
260 ; describes the Tribula, 260 ; 
comments on the fuller's craft 
among the Romans, 260, 261 ; 
as to Vespasian and the fuller's 
craft, 261; " squelches " his fin- 
ger-nail, 262 ; philosophizes on 
it, 263 ; complains of ill health, 
262, 263 ; as to the true pulpit 
and true Church, 263; upon 
the right of speculative men to 
exist, 263; on writers, 264; 
should writing be difficult ? 264 ; 
cautions himself as to writing, 
264 ; exhorts himself to honesty 



Carlyle, Thomas — continued. 
in writing, 265 ; defines his diffi- 
culty in writing, 265; finishes 
funeral discourse on Goethe, 265 
(see note 1) ; takes up Corn Law 
Rhymes, 265 ; his reluctance to 
renounce a road once entered on, 
266; reflects on the tinkering 
of the State, 266, 267 (see note, 
p. 267) ; finishes a paper on the 
Corn Law Rhymer, 267; pur- 
poses memoir of Lord Byron for 
"New Monthly Magazine," 
268; projects essay on Goethe 
for "Foreign Quarterly Re- 
view," 268 ; is idle for twelve 
days, 268; hears from Lytton 
about the Goethe funeral dis- 
course, 268 ; goes down to Scots- 
brig to settle family affairs, 268 ; 
gives an account of the settle- 
ment of his father's will, 268, 
269 ; as to his Aunt Fanny and 
her son, 270, 271 ; hears rumors 
of loss of New Reform Bill, 271,* 
on the political situation, 272, 
2 73> 274 ; on the only Reform, 
274 ; his alienation from politics, 
274 ; his political principle, 275 ; 
goes with Fraser to House of 
Commons, but fails to get in, 
275; sees Macaulay in lobby of 
House, 276; describes Macau- 
lay, 276, 277; visits Windham 
Club with Fraser, 277 ; describes 
Windham Club, 277 ; on clubs 
in general, 277; farewell reflec- 
tions, 278 

Carnwath, Earl of, anecdote of, at 
Naseby, 12 

Chalgrove-field, skirmish at, be- 
tween Thame and Oxford, 6 

Champollion, inventor of phonetic 
characters, in ; well received in 
Italy, in 

Chapel, origin of the word, as used 
by printers, 261, 262 

Character, national, the description 
of a, tends to realize itself, 154 

Characters, phonetic, well received 
in Italy, in 

Charles I, seizes members of Com- 
mons "accused of Treason," 2; 
eludes Waller at Worcester, 10 ; 
rejoins Queen at Oxford, 10; 

Charles I — continued. 
fights at Cropredy-bridge, 10; 
follows Essex into the West, 10 ; 
defeats him at Lostwithiel, 10 ; is 
beaten at Newbury, 10; retires 
to Oxford, 10; retires to Chep- 
stow after Naseby, 13; thence to 
Cardiff, etc., 13; inclines to join 
Montrose, 13 ; sends Lord Digby 
north to Dumfries, 13; at Ox- 
ford in 1646, 14; surrenders to 
Scotch army at Newark, 14; 
seized at Holmby by Cornet 
Joyce, 14 ; brought to Newmar- 
ket, 15 ; Henderson attempts to 
convert, to Presbyterianism, 15 ; 
signs treaty with Scots in Caris- 
brooke, 15; beheaded, 16; Car- 
lyle's opinion of, 16 

Charles II, "getting settled in 
Scotland," 3 ; Milton's fear con- 
cerning, 3; stanza on, 5 ; goes 
to Stilly in 1646, 14 ; at the 
Hague, 16 

Charles III, of Spain, last years of, 
most illustrious, 109 

Chaucer, Godfrey, his house Don- 
nington, near Newbury in Wilts,8 

Chillingworth, Mr., taken at Arun- 
del, 9 ; illtreatment of, 9 

Cholera,apprehensionof,not shared 
by Carlyle, 221 

Christ, Jesus, the significance of, 
171 ; the words of, characterized, 

Christianity,, introduced into Eng- 
land about A. d. 180, 23 

Church, the true, 263 

Cicero, anecdote of Antimachus 
Clarius, 124 

Cockney, the, the most ignorant 
man of his class, 224 

Coleridge, on talent and genius, 
46; on ideas, 78 

Comley Bank, 67 (see note) 

Conduct, 31, note 

Confessio fidei (of Wallensteins 
Jager), translation of, 61, 62,63 

Cookery, the ultimate object of, 71 

Cor ne edito, 165 (see note) 

Corniani, "Secoli della Let. It," 

Cote, 31, note 

Courtesies, of polished life, Carlyle 
on the, 126 



Craft, the fuller's, among the 
Romans, 260, 261 

Critics, German, curious people, 
33 ; comparison of, with English 
and Scotch, 33; favorable to 
Germans, 33 

Cromwell, Oliver, remark to Lord 
Falkland touching The Remon- 
strance, 1; chosen to command 
force under Manchester, 9; his 
" iron band " at Marston Moor, 
10; proposes "self denying ordi- 
nance," 1 1 ; general in the West, 
14 ; orders Joyce to seize Charles 
I, 14; secretly doomed to the 
Tower, but escapes to the army, 
15 ; defeats Scotch under Duke 
of Hamilton, 16 ; Carlyle com- 
ments upon, 17; dissolves the 
Parliament by force, 18; sum- 
mons Barebone's Parliament, 18 ; 
declared Protector, 18 ; prose- 
cutes Lilburn, 18; death, 19; 
Carlyle to ascertain more clearly 
the aims of, 31 ; a life of, desira- 
ble, 93 

Cunningham, Allan, meets Car- 
lyle in London, 196; visits the 
Carlyles, 214; meets Carlyle at 
Fraser's, 249 

Dante, commentators on, in 

" Defensio Gigmanica," the, 216 
(see note 1) 

D'Eichthal, Gustave, the Saint- 
Simonian, meets Carlyle (see 
note 2) ; acquainted with Emer- 
son, 201 (see note 2) 

Delegates, Convention of, to ex- 
pedite Reform Bill, 206 

Delusion, popular, as to, 105, 106 

Denovan, Denny, 59 

Descartes, founds all truth on God, 
100; differs from the English, 
who found God on truth, 100 

Desideratum, the great, in society, 

Didot, F. , French printer, number 

of volumes produced annually 
by, no 
Digby, Lord, advises king to seize 
members of the House of Com- 
mons, 2; despatched north by 
Charles I, 13; deserts his army 
at Dumfries, 13 

Dilettantism, the Sin of the age, 

Dilke, C. W., 208, 209 (see notes) 
" Dumfries Courier," the, Carlyle 

writes letter to, 153 (see also 

note 2) 
Dunoyer, writer on Industrialism, 

Drake, various quotations from, 
146 (see also note 2) 

Ebel, Dr., 107 

Economists, Political, error of, 143 ; 
Carlyle's query as to, 143, 144; 
the whole phdosophy of, 144 ; 
uselessness of, 144; should col- 
lect statistical facts, 160 

Economy, Political, as to, 100; 
present science of, requires little 
intellect, 160; though young, is 
decrepit, 160 

Edgehill, Battle of, 5 ; location of, 

Education, Carlyle upon, 222, 223 
(see note 1, p. 223) 

Elizabeth, Queen, men of her time 
the Romans or Greeks of English 
history, 70; her literature the 
only true poetical literature of 
England, 70 

Ellwood, reader of Latin to Milton, 
21 ; his life of himself, 21 ; Car- 
lyle's opinion of, 21 ; life of, why 
read by Carlyle, 21 ; description 
of, 21 ; compared with Alfieri, 
Goethe, Voltaire, 22 

Emperors, Roman, anecdotes of 

8 7 . . . 

Empiricism, does it lead to Athe- 
ism? 102 

Empirics, the, 102 

England, Carlyle desires to know, 
132; no precise history of, 132; 
the old literature of, 132 ; to un- 
derstand her, one must under- 
stand her Church, 133; dearth 
of artists in, 133; dearth of mu- 
sicians and painters in, 133 ; the 
characteristic strength of, 134 ; 
character of the people of, 134 

English, the, found all truth on 
God, 100 

Entsagen (Renunciation), 221 (see 
note 2) 

Erasmus, characterization of, 118 



Esbie, Captain, "there is nothing 

like getting on," 104 
Evil, inseparable (for man) from 

good, 227 (see note 2) 
Existence, individual, a mystery, 

161; social, still more, 161 (see 

note); speculations on, 161, 162; 

life only the portico of man's, 221 
Eye, the spiritual and bodily, 136 

Fable, 91 ; instruction communi- 
cated by, chiefly prohibitive, 92 ; 
the Conjurer (II), 93; as to the 
necessity of any man (III), 101; 
as to development of character 
(IV), 105 

Fairfax, Lord, defeats Royalists at 
Naseby, 12; general in the 
West, 14 ; seizes Colchester, 16 

Falkland, Lord, Cromwell's remark 
to, concerning The Remon- 
strance, 1 ; killed at Battle of 
Newbury, 8; Clarendon's opin- 
ion of, 8; Carlyle on, 8, 9; be- 
longed to Lord Byron's regi- 
ment, 9 

Fichte, a metaphysical atheist, 46; 
his "Transcendental Idealism," 
112 ; pretended to have deduced 
his system from Kant, 112 

Fleetwood, a trooper in the 
Guards, 5; sent by Essex to 
Shrewsbury, 5 ; son of Sir Miles 
Fleetwood, 19 

Fletcher (and Beaumont), drama- 
tists, disappointing to Carlyle, 
31; criticism of, 31, 32 

Fonblanque (editor of "Exam- 
iner"), entertains Carlyle, 213, 
214 (see note 1, p. 214) 

Foreign minds and characters hard 
to judge truly, 92 ; exemplifica- 
tion, 92 

Foscarini, Sebastian, Doge of 
Venice, inscription on tomb of, 
89 (see also note 2) 

France, printers, booksellers and 
authors in, 1 10 ; number of vol- 
umes printed annually in, no; 
number of printing offices in, 
no; number of active presses in, 
no; amount spent annually in 
printing in, no; number of book- 
sellers in, no; amount earned 
by authors annually in, no 

Franklin, definition of man by, 
245; anticipates " Teufelsdreck " 
in it, 245 

Fraser, James (publisher of 
" Fraser's Magazine"), enter- 
tains Carlyle at dinner, 249; set- 
tles with Carlyle about essay on 
Johnson, 255 

"Fraser's Magazine," criticized 
by Carlyle, 170; characterized 
by Carlyle, 232; described by 
Carlyle, 259 

Fraser, W. (brother to James 
Fraser), editor of " Foreign Re- 
view," 249 (see note) ; entertains 
Carlyle, 256; is denied admit- 
tance to the House of Commons 
with Carlyle, 275 ; takes Carlyle 
to the Windham Club, 275 ; sees 
Macaulay in lobby of House, 
276 ; remark concerning Macau- 
lay, 276 

Friendship, not mentioned in New 
Testament, 106 

Fuller, craft of the, among the 
Romans, 260, 261 

Gall, borrows from Herder, 46 

Gallicistes, the, 109 

Gait, John, meets Carlyle at Fra- 
ser's, 249 ; described by Carlyle, 
249, 250 

Gassendi, as to the metaphysics of? 
102; "the father of existing 
French Philosophy," 102 

Gellert, anecdote of, 122 

Genius, Alfieri on, 30; Coleridge's 
distinction between talent and, 
46; the true relation of moral to 
poetic, inquired into, 188 

" Genoveva," Tieck's, considera- 
tion of characters in, 73 

Gherardini, translator and im- 
pugner of Schlegel, in 

Gleig, G. R., Rev., writes to Car- 
lyle concerning Goethe and 
Luther, 154 (see note) 

Glen, , 200 (see note 1) 

Godwin, William, meets Carlyle, 
198; characterized by Carlyle, 
199 ; his life of Mary Wollstone- 
craft, 204; epitomized by Car- 
lyle, 205 

Goethe, on the spending of time, 
31; Carlyle's query as to, 32 



Goethe — continued. 
effect of " Wilhelm Meister " on 
Carlyle, 32; his comprehension 
of Carlyle, 32; "a wise and 
great man," 32; last volume of 
life of, 32; meets Schiller, 36; 
wiser than Herder or Wieland, 
46; Carlyle's approval of, 46; 
"again dangerously ill," 60; on 
idea and action, 81; called ill- 
bred by British critics, 126 ; Car- 
lyle's opinion of, 127 ; on the 
sublime, 128; on his work, 129 
(see note) ; death of, 259 

Good, inseparable (for man) from 
Evil, 227 (see note 2) 

Goring, Lord, the Parliament's 
guardian and betrayer, 1 1 ; after- 
ward Royalist general of Horse, 
11 ; "a very sufficient cozener," 
but "clever" and "very origi- 
nal," 11; "the dog," 13; mis- 
behaves, 13 ; goes to France, 13 

Gottingen, professors at, account 
of, 117; many men of note pro- 
duced at, 117 

Gowkthrapple, Dr., 102 (see note 2) 

Grammarians, Italian, no 

" Grammont," Carlyle's desire to 
read, 53 

Greenvil, Sir Dick, the Nabal, 13 ; 
levies enormous contributions, 
13; is imprisoned, but escapes, 

r 3 

Grey, Earl, Carlyle on, 273, 274 

Gries, translations by, 131 

Grossi, Thomas, poet and Ro- 
mantic, in; said to surpass 
Tasso, in 

Grotius, his method of reading 
"Terence," 128 

Gryph, Andreas, death of, 119 

Guards, troopers of the, all gentle- 
men's sons, 19 

Hacket, Bishop, Life of Abp. Wil- 
liams, 2, note 

Hackman, Parson, comment on, 

Hadrian, epitaph on Csesar, 123 

Hambden, accused of treason, 2 ; 
killed at Chalgrove-field, 6 ; Car- 
lyle's estimate of, 7; coupled 
with Washington by Carlyle, 7 ; 
portrait of, by Clarendon, 8 

Hamilton, Duke of, defeated by 
Cromwell, 1 6 ; taken prisoner at 
Uttoxeter, 16; beheaded, 17 
Harrison, conducts Charles I to 

Westminster, 16 ; origin of, 16 
Hazelrig, accused of treason, 2 
Hazlitt, Carlyle's opinion of, 213 
Honor-titles, derivation of, past and 

future, 185 
Heeren, biographer of Heyne, 116 
Henderson, Mr., pitted against 
Bishop Steward, 11 ; " why does 
not McCrie write a life of? " 12 ; 
tries to convert Charles I, 15; 
dies of a broken heart, 15 
Herder, Carlyle has good hopes of, 
33; his "Nemesis," 33; account 
of and quotation from, 33, 34; 
compared to Hervey, 34 ; his 
essay about the decay of taste 
used by Madame de Stael, 34; 
quotation from Herder, 35, 36 ; 
hates the " new philosophy," 45 ; 
his " Ideen," 72 ; Carlyle's criti- 
cism of it, 72 ; Carlyle's desire to 
see more of, 73 ; a sort of "Browne 
redivivus," 73 
Heyne, list of works of, 115, 116; 
birthplace of, 116; short account 
of, 116; "not great, but large," 

"7 . 
Historian, the, disadvantage of, 

. I2 4. 

Histrio-Mastix, Prynne's, 29 

Hoddam Hill, 64 (see note) 

Hogg, James (the"Ettrick Shep- 
herd") , meets Carlyle at Fraser's, 
249; described by Carlyle, 250, 

Holland, Lord, 17 

Hollis, accused of treason, 2 ; quar- 
rels with Ireton, 15; pulls Ire- 
ton by the nose, 15 

Homer, greater than Shakespeare ? 

Hooker, as to the " Mother of 
Error," 143 

Hopton, defeats Parliament at 
Bradock-Down, 6; defeated at 
Arlesford by Waller, 9; fails to 
save Royalist cause after Naseby, 

Hopton-heath, Battle of, 6; loca- 
tion of, 6; Parliament beaten 
at, 6 



Horace, on mastering things, 132 
(see also note) 

Hume, " Essay on Human Na- 
ture," 262 (see note) 

Hunt, Leigh, seeks out Carlyle, 
256; Carlyle's opinion of, 257 

Hurry (a Scot), account of, 7 

Individuality, as to intellectual, 

114 ; as to moral, 114 
Industrialism, historical sketch of, 

XI 3 
Industrials, the, 113 ; Saint-Simon 

the chief of the, 113; political 

theories of the, 113 
Institutions (or Laws), as to, 141 
Immortality, conception of, de- 
pends on that of Time, 222 
Ireton, Henry, quarrels with Hol- 

lis, 15 ; refuses to fight him, 15 ; 

dies of plague at Limerick, 1 8 ; 
Iriarte, Tomas, Spanish writer, 

109; Carlyle's opinion, 109 
Irving, Edward, "may be yet a 

Bishop," 185 

Jeffrey, resigns editorship of" Ed- 
inburgh Review," 140 (see note); 
to see Carlyle at Dumfries, 141 ; 
offers Carlyle an annuity, 155 ; 
visits Carlyle at Craigenputtock, 
173; as viewed by Carlyle, 173, 
174, 175 ; Lord Advocate and M. 
P., 185; emotion on taking of- 
fice, 185 ; receives Carlyle in 
London, 193, 194 
Johnson, Dr., Carlyle on, 60 
Joyce, Cornet, seizes Charles I at 
Holmby, 14 ; his authority for 
doing so, 14, 15 

Kant, Carlyle on, 41, 46 ; writers 
on, 112; his system of morality 
universal in Germany, 112; de- 
nies that Fichte made use of his 
system, 112; reminds Carlyle of 
Father Boscovich, 112 
Katherine of Portugal (and Charles 
II), stanza on, by Swift or Roch- 
ester, s 
Kimbolton, Lord, 2 
Kings, divine right of, 184, 185 
Kinnaird, Carlyle at (1823), 50, 51 
Kirchberg, Hartman von, his epi- 
taph on himself, 156 

Know, how to, what we are, 152 
" Knox," McCries', of no im- 
mense weight, 5 

Lacepede, Comte de, history of 
Europe by, 107; Carlyle's opinion 
of it, 107 

Lacr6telle, a superficial historian, 
32 ; estimate of, 32 ; his " Re- 
ligious Wars," 52; Carlyle's 
opinion of it, 52 

Landsdown, Battle of, near Bath, 
8 ; Parliament beaten at, 8 

Language, all, except concerning 
sensual objects, figurative, 141, 
142 (see note, p. 142) 

Lardner, Dr. Dionysius (of the 
Cabinet Cyclopedia), seeks Car- 
lyle's aid, 231 (see notes, P» 2 34): 
a "Langohriger,"234 (see note); 
loses Carlyle, 254 

Leibnitz, locates truth, 100; re- 
verse view by the English, 100 

Lesly, David, defeats Montrose at 
Philipshaugh, 14 

Leyden, Dr. John, verses to Mrs. 
Buller, 63 

Life, logical import of, 180; the 
portico of man's Existence, 221 

Lilburn, persecuted by Star Cham- 
ber, 18; taken at Brentford, 18; 
attacks Cromwell, 18; is prose- 
cuted by Cromwell,but acquitted, 
18; the Cobbett of those days, 18 

Lilis, first wife of Adam, 82 

Literature, the old English, spirit 
of better than that of ours, 69 ; 
touched with true beauty, 69; 
Elizabethan, the only truly poeti- 
cal, of England, 70 ; printing not 
the symbol of, 170, 171 

Literary men, the only sovereigns 
of the world, 184 

Logau, T. von, couplet by, 118; 
couplet by, 119 

London, as to the size of, 209, 210; 
hurry of life in, 210; Carlyle on 
the want of Government in, 211 ; 
description of, 211 ; difficulty of 
finding places in, 237; no lend- 
ing library in London, 237 (see 
note 2) 

Londonderry, wrested from the 
City of London by Star Chamber, 
afterwards restored, 2 



Longman & Co., Carlyle presents 
letter of introduction to, 196; re- 
fuse Carlyle's "German Lit. 
History," 106 

Lostwithiel, Essex's foot capitu- 
lates at, 10 

Ludlow, succeeds Ireton, 18 ; at 
Battle of Edgehill, 191a trooper 
of the Guards, 19; his "Mem- 
oirs," 19; Carlyle's opinion of 
his U Memoirs," 19 

Luther, asceticism of, 136; last 
words of, 137; Melanchthon's 
life of, 138; Seckendorf's history 
of, 138; other works concerning, 
138; ancestry 0^138; monastic 
life of, 138; Motschmanus on, at 
Erfurt, 138; character of, as a 
monk, 138, 139 (see note, p. 139) ; 
chronology of life of, 139; char- 
acter of, 139; attachment to 
music of, 139 ; Carlyle desires to 
write a life of, 140; such men as, 
needed in each century, 140; 
Carlyle thinks seriously of dis- 
cussing, 142. 

McCrie, his " Knox," no immense 
weight, 5 

McDiarmid (editor of " Dumfries 
Courier "), Carlyle describes, 272 

Macaulay, T. B., Carlyle on, 236 
(see note 3), 276; bought oranges 
before speaking in House of 
Commons, 276 

Machiavel, comment on, 15 

Maginn, William, meets Carlyle 
at Fraser's, 258; described by 
Carlyle, 258 ; the real originator 
of " Fraser's Magazine," 258 

Man, history of a, like that of his 
world, 132; Carlyle's own ex- 
perience as to the history of a, 
132; a visible mystery, 136; is a 
spirit, 161; viewed in a mere 
logical sense, 163; the moral na- 
ture of, 164; is an apparition, 
164; infinitely venerable to every 
other man, 166; Novalis on the 
body of, 166 

Manchester, Earl of, defeats Ru- 
pert and Newcastle at Marston 
Moor, 10 

Manzoni, poet and romanticist, 
hi; failure as a tragedian, 11 1 

Massinger (dramatist), disappoint- 
ing to Carlyle, 31; criticism of, 

3i» 3 2 

Marshall, Mr., who was? 1 

Marston Moor, Battle of, 10; 
Royalists defeated by Manches- 
ter at, "chiefly by Cromwell's 
iron band," 10; location of, 10 

Meditation and Seclusion, Carlyle 
on, 176 

Memoirs, various, list of, 128 

Mendelssohn, the "Phadon " of, a 
half imitation of Plato's "Phae- 
don," 94; possesses beauty and 
simplicity, 94 ; divided into three 
dialogues, 95 ; summary of them, 
95,96 . 

"Mercunus, newspaper, set on 
foot during Spanish Armada, 4 

Merelles, same as Corsicrown, 224, 
225; also called "nine men's 
morrice," 225 

Metaphors, prodigious influence of, 
142 ; essay on, needed, 142 ; 
Carlyle determines to write essay 
on, 142 ; " Sartor Resartus " to 
be regarded as the essay on, 142 
(see note 1) 

Michaud, "Histoire des Croi- 
sades," 118 

Milan, number of journals in, 112 

Mill, J. S., sees Carlyle, 205; 
pleases Carlyle, 205 

Millot, work on the Troubadours, 

Milton, Defensio Pop. Angl. ag 1 . 
the Def. Reg. of Saumaise, 3, 
5 ; Carlyle's analysis of, 3 ; 
"not a man of breeding," 3; 
wife of, said to "have worn the 
breeks," 3; life and writings of, 
by Birch, 8 ; adjt-gen'l. to Wal- 
ler, 19; his history of Britain, 
22 ; criticism of, by Carlyle, 22 ; 
some " agates " picked from it, 
23 ; his first publication, " Of 
Reformation," 23 ; praise of it, 
by Carlyle, 24; examination of 
it, 24, 25 ; his second pamphlet, 
"Of Prelatical Episcopacy, 25; 
characterization of it, 25; his 
third pamphlet, "The Reason 
of Church Government," 26; 
examination of it, 26 ; praise of 
it, 27 ; Carlyle only beginning to 



Milton — continued. 
understand Milton, 27; Sym- 
mons' life of, and Hayley's life 
of, characterized, 27 ; '* Axle of 
Discipline," 27; account of the 
"Axle," 28; Carlyle's criticism 
of himself as a critic of, 28 ; last 
two pamphlets of 1641, "Anim- 
adversions on the Remonstrant's 
defense of Smectymnuus" and 
"Apology for Sm.," 28; criti- 
cism of both, 28; the "Areopa- 
gitica" of, 29; account and criti- 
cism of it, 29, 30 ; Brougham in 
comparison with, 29 ; Carlyle to 
ascertain more clearly the aims 
of, 31 

Mind, compared with nature, 132 

Montaigne, Carlyle's opinion of 
"Essais" of, 53 

Montrose, secret history of, 12; 
defeated at Philipshaugh by 
Lesly, 14; execution of, a dis- 
grace to Scottish Kirk, 17 ; char- 
acter of, 17 

Montrevil, a French agent, 14; 
negotiates surrender of Charles 
I to the Scotch, 14 

Moore, Thomas, Carlyle's opinion 
of, 236 

Morality, and action, 228 ; perfect, 
not an object of consciousness, 

Moratm, L.-F. de, restorer of dra- 
matic art in Spain, 108 

Moratin, N-F. de, father of L-F. 
de M., writer of tragedy, 108 

Miillner, German playwright, 205 
(see note 1), 206, 211 

Murray, offered "Sartor Resar- 
tus" by Carlyle, 194; described 
by Carlyle, 194 

Musicians, earliest Italian, 13T ; 
German, 131 

Mystery, every living man a vis- 
ible, 136 

Naharro, B. T., playwright of 1 6th 

century, 108 
Napier, succeeds Jeffrey on the 

" Edinburgh Review" and gives 

Carlyle letter to Longman's, 194 

(see note 1) 
Napoleon, remark by Carlyle on, 

7 ; compared with Hambden, 7 

Narration, primary defect in the 
art of, 124 ; this understood by 
Carlyle, 124 

Naseby, Battle of, King defeated 
at, 12 ; good description of, by 
Clarendon, 12; ruin of Royalist 
cause after, 13 

Navigation, Act of, passed in an- 
ger at the Dutch, 17, its intent, 
17 ; attributed by Raynal to King 
James, 17 ; was the beginning of 
the Dutch-English'quarrel, 17 

Nepenthe, Helena's, supposition 
concerning, 93 

Newbury, battle of, both sides 
claim victory, 8 ; Lord Falkland 
killed at, 8 

Newcastle, Duke of, beaten by 
Manchester at Marston Moor, 
10; flies beyond the sea, 10 

Newspapers, in Milton's time, 4 

Nicolas, Sir Nicholas Harris, 143 ; 
remark of, to Carlyle, concerning 
booksellers, 256 

"No day without writing a line," 

Note book (No. 1) begun while 
reading Clarendon's History 
(Edin. 1822), 1, note 

Novalis, "Schriften" of, review of 
the, 135; review published, 140; 
Carlyle's opinion of, 140; upon 
religion, 149 ; on the body of 
man, 166 

O'Connell, a real demagogue, 247 
" Oceana," 29 

Oxford, attempted treaty in 1643 
at, 6 

Pain, irremediable, alleviation to, 
164 ; the measure of life and of 
talent, 169 ; a stone feels no, 169 

Paley, Carlyle's criticism of, 103 

Palm, the, legend of, 119 

Paris, number of booksellers in, 
no; number of printing houses 
in, no; number of active presses 
in, no 

Passeroni, anecdote of, 130; his 
"Cicerone," 130; death of, 130 

Peers, House of, abolished soon 
after King's death, 17 

Petrarquistes, the, 109; "the glo- 
rious Spanish Literature," 109 



Petronius, quotation from, 97 
"Phadon," the, of Mendelssohn 

(see Mendelssohn) 
Philosophy, Political, what it 

should be, 144; what it is, 144 
Phonetic characters well received 

in Italy, 111 
Plato, Antimachus Clarius on, 124 
Playing cards, on the date and 

origin of, 224 
Poem, does a, differ from prose? 187 
Poems that live, birth of, 103; he- 
roic, as to the true, 188 
Poet, what a, should be, 48; the 

ultimate object of a, 124 
Poetry, the ultimate object of, 71 
Politeness, peculiar to the rich and 

well-born, 166 
Politics, not Life but the house 

wherein Life is lead, 141 ; the 

noblest science, 165; Carlyle's 

alienation from, 274 
Pope, and his school, pedagogical 

poets, 70 
Potatoes, in London, exorbitant 

price of, 210 
Principle, Carlyle's political, 275 
Printing, not the symbol of litera- 
ture, 170, 171 
Problem, the eternal, of man, 208; 

a further and harder, found in 

London, 208 ; the deepest, in 

these days, 264 
Profane, the, proportion of, to the 

sacred, 188 
Prose, does it differ from a poem ? 

Proverb, German, a, 129 (see also 

note 2) 
Pullus Jovis, etc., 85 (see note) 
Pulpit, the, advantage of, 215 ; the 

true, 263 
Pym, accused of treason, 2 

Quincunx, the, 68 ; Carlyle on, 68. 

Quixote, Don, philosophical indif- 
ference of Sancho Panza in, 145 

Qualities, in man, the unhappiest, 

Quarrels, origin of all, 149, 150 

" Quarterly Review," the, Car- 
lyle's opinion of, 143 

Raleigh, Sir Walter, advice of, to 
his son, 69 

Ranelagh, formerly the Earl of R.'s 

house, 225 
Rationalists, 102 
Reading (town), taken 1643, 6 
Reading, a weariness of the flesh, 


Reason, decisions of, superior to 
those of understanding, 83; re- 
lation of, to Understanding, 142 ; 
can never be extinguished, 142 

Reform Bill, lost, 202 (see note 1) ; 
the New, carried, 271 (see note) 

"Register, Literary Annual," 
prospectus for, 77-81 

Reinhold (coupled with Fichte), 46 

"Religio Medici," the, Carlyle's 
opinion of, 69 ; " made a mighty 
noise at its first appearance," 90 

Religion, moral of the Christian, 
150; easy to write, hard to prac- 
tice, 150; the Christian, like 
some Nile, 158; the true element 
of, 164; the cement of Society, 
179; is Art higher than? 204 

Reluctance, to turn back, Carlyle's, 

Remedy, the beginning of a, 209 

Remonstrance, The, 1 

" Revue Encyclopedique" (French 
magazine) worthy of imitation 
in Britain, no 

Richter, Jean Paul, quotation from 
the " Levana" of, 114 ; anecdote 
from the "Levana," 123; on 
salvation, 143 

Ritson, "Fairy Tales" and "Old 
Ballads," 213 

River, a, as to the right and left 
bank of, 122 

Rochester (or Swift), stanza on 
Charles II and Katherine of 
Portugal, 5 

Rogers, Samuel, characterization 
of, by Carlyle, 236 (see note 4) 

Romantics versus Classics, 111 

Roundway, Battle of, near Devizes, 
8 ; Parliament beaten at, 8 

Rupert, Prince, beaten by Man- 
chester at Marston Moor, 10; 
goes southward, 10; son of ex- 
king of Bohmen, 10; Carlyle's 
estimate of, 10 ; defeated at 
Naseby by Fairfax, 12; "a fiery 
ettercap, a fractious chiel," 12; 
in command in Ireland, 16 



Ruthven ("a Scot"), defeated by 
Hopton at Bradock-Down, 6 ; 
afterward General Brentford, 
"dotard, drunkard, deaf," 10 

Sachs, Hans, Carlyle on, 74 

Sacred, the, to the profane, pro- 
portions of, 18S 

Sadler's Well, origin of, 225 (see 
note 1) 

St. Paul's or " Paradise Lost " the 
greater necessity? 245 

Saint-Simon, chief of the Indus- 
triels, 113; reputed to be mad, 
113; descended from Charle- 
magne, 113 

Saint-Simonians, write to Carlyle, 
158 ; have strange notions, with 
a large spicing of truth, 158 ; are 
among the Signs of the Times, 
158; answered by Carlyle, 158 
(see note 2) 

" Sandy," Uncle, death of, 147 

"Sartor Resartus," the germ of, 
136 (see note 2) 

Saumaise, Defensio Reg., 3, 5; 
Milton's abuse of, 3; Voltaire's 
reference to, 4, note; his mode 
of reasoning, 4 

Scaliger, Joseph Justus, professor 
at Leyden, 88 ; his works, 88 

Scaliger, Julius Csesar, quotation 
from, 87 ; his birth and paren- 
tage, 88; life and character of, 

Schelling, his " System of Iden- 
tity," 112 

Schiller, birth and origin, 36 ; ob- 
ligation to Madame von Woll- 
zogen, 36 ; visit to Weimar, 36 ; 
sees Herder and Wieland, 36 ; 
joins "Teutsches Mercur," 36; 
visits Rudolstadt and meets his 
future wife, 36 ; sees Goethe, 36 ; 
various remarks on, 36, 37; de- 
scription of, 37, 38 ; not inclined 
to noisy pleasures, 38 ; close con- 
nection with the theatre of, 38 ; 
strict demands upon the per- 
formers of his plays, 39 ; his 
benevolence and kindliness, 39 ; 
his upright conduct in business, 
39 ; delineation of himself by, 
40 ; Carlyle's summing up of, 40, 
41 ; quotation from, 48, 49 

Schlegel, A., called on by Carlyle, 
258; dined by Hayward and 
Lardner, 258 ; a literary Gig- 
man, 258 

Schlegel, F., Carlyle on, 42; as to 
thought, 104: his "Philosophy 
of Life," 129; death of, 135; 
comment on, by Carlyle, 135 

Scotland, nothing poetical in, but 
its religion, 133 ; Carlyle's atti- 
tude toward, 133 ; Carlyle's un- 
equal knowledge of, 133; have 
the gentry of, lost their national 
character ? 134 ; is the peasant of, 
the true Scotchman ? 134; people 
of, compared with people of Eng- 
land, 135 ; music and songs of, 
135 ; books on, to be consulted, 
135 ; Scott's history of, not a his- 
tory, 168; what history of, is like, 
169; herself not there, 169; be- 
havior of the nobles of, 169 ; pro- 
gressed independent of her his- 
tory, 169 

Scots, "ran like collies (fidem 
detis?) " at Marston Moor, 10 

Scott, Sir Walter, " the great Res- 
taurateur of Europe," 71 ; what 
he might have been, and what 
he is, 71; his novels character- 
ized, 71 ; Carlyle on some char- 
acters in, 126 ; the " gentlemen " 
of, Carlyle on, 127; as to his 
"Bonaparte," 127; his charac- 
ter-building contrasted with 
Burns's, 127 ; Carlyle on his 
" History of Scotland," 168; in- 
ference drawn from, by Carlyle, 
168; leaves England for Naples 
on a Government ship, 214; in 
precarious health, 214; estimate 
of, by Carlyle, 214 

Seclusion, and Meditation, Carlyle 
on, 176 

Secrecy, the element of all Good- 
ness, 177 

" Self denying ordinance," pro- 
posed by Cromwell and Vane, 
11; object of, 11 

Shaftesbury, Earl of, his " Charac- 
teristics," 71; criticism of, 72 

Shakespeare, how to prize, 32 ; re- 
vision of above as to Carlyle, 32 
(see also p. 121) ; greater than 
Homer? 187 



Shepherd (Unitarian parson), Car- 
lyle's meeting with and opinion 
of, 244, 245 

Shiel (Irish orator), convicted of 
lying, 247 

Shoes, good, not to be had in 
London, 207 

Sickingen, Franz von, one of the 
noblest men of the Reformation 
period, 166 ; defended Ulrich von 
Hutten, 166; fought against 
Wiirtemberg, 166 ; the terror of 
evil-doers, 166 ; read Luther with 
Hutten, 166; good breeding of, 
166 ; is killed fighting against 
the Bishop of Triers, 166; anec- 
dote concerning death of, 166, 
167; enemies weep at the fune- 
ral of, 167 

" Siegwart," Miller's, the begin- 
ning of the sentimental period, 

Silence, Carlyle on, 176; contrasted 
with Speech, 177; the nobleness 
of, 228 

"Sister Margaret," death of, 156 ; 

Society, a wonder of wonders, 165 ; 
division of, by Carlyle, 215 

Sonata, Devil's, the, 130 

South, quotation from, 97 ; Car- 
lyle's opinion of, 97 

Southey, Carlyle on the " Travels " 

of > 5 . 
Spain, literature in, English igno- 
rance of, 109 
Speech and Silence, Carlyle on, 177 
Spenser, quotation from, 49, 50 ; 
pleases Carlyle, 50 ; a dainty 
body, 50 
Spirits, Wandering, the, 167 
" Sports," Carlyle laments the ab- 
sence of, 222 
Stamford, defeated by Royalists at 

Stratton Hill, 8 
Stanza (by Swift or Rochester), on 
Charles II and Katherine of Por- 
tugal, 5 
Star Chamber, date of institution, 2 
Steward, Bishop, "pitted against 

Mr. Henderson," 11 
Stewart, " Aunt Mary," death of, 

Strahan, defeats Montrose, 17 
Stratton hill, Batde of, 8 ; Parlia- 
ment defeated at, 8 ; location of, 8 

Strode, accused of treason, 2 
Swift (or Rochester), stanza on 

Charles II and Katherine of 

Portugal, 5 ; quotation from, 103 ; 

Carlyle's comment on, 103 
Swinburne, travels of, explanation 

of the aequo pulsat pede in, 60 

Tacitus, as to physicians, 86; as to 

astrologers, 122 
Tait (bookseller), to start a new 

Radical magazine, 232 
Talent, Coleridge's distinction be- 
tween genius and, 46 
Talma, seen in role of CEdipe, 98 
Tartini, Giuseppe, anecdote of, 130 
Tasso, Carlyle proposes a discourse 
on, 123 (note 3); his "Del 
Poema Eroico," Carlyle on, 125; 
his " Gerusalemme," 125; a 
mystic, 125 
Teaching, is oral superior to the 

written mode of? 212 
Temple, Sir William, Carlyle's 
opinion of, 84 ; no artist or phi- 
losopher, but man of action, 84; 
"Terence," how Grotius read, 128 
Themistocles, his gift of forgetting, 

53 (see note) 
Theology, curious division of, 124 
Thinking and Thoughts, 228 
Thought, is every, an inspiration, 

Thoughts and Thinking, 228 
Tieck, Runenberg, 66; his "Ge- 
noveva," 73; consideration of 
characters in it, 73 ; next to 
Goethe, Richter being dead, 74; 
quotation from, 81 
Time, Goethe on the spending o», 
31 ; conception of, determines 
the meaning of Immortality, 222 
" Times," the, criticism of Schil- 
ler, Part II, by, 61 ; Carlyle's 
comment on, 6i 
Titus, reproaches Vespasian for 

imposing tax on fullers, 261 
Tribula, described by Carlyle, 260 
Tribulation, derivation of the word, 

Truth, difficult to obtain the, 217 

Ugoni, Camillo, his " History of 
Italian Literature," 130; its 
scope, 130 



Understanding, decisions of, in- 
ferior to those of Reason, 83 ; re- 
lation of, to Reason, 142 
Union, spiritual, power of, 164, 165 
Unitarians, Carlyle and the, 245 
Universe, wonder of the, 142 
" Upstart companions," Claren- 
don's epithet, 2 
" Urne Burial," the best of Sir T. 
Browne's books, 67; Carlyle's 
criticism of, 67 
Utilitarians, the crowning mercy 
of the age, 145 ; trend of, 145 ; 
contrasted with Whigs, 172 
Uxbridge-treaty, graphically de- 
lineated, 11 

Vane, Sir H., proposes "self-de- 
nying ordinance," 11 

Vauxhall,formerly Spring Gardens, 

Vespasian, lays a tax on fullers, 
261; reproached by Titus for 
doing so, 261 

Villemain, writer of "Melanges," 

Virtue, its own reward, why ? 103 ; 
as regarded by a healthy or an 
unhealthy moral nature, 230 

Vives, Ludovicus, comment on, 
86 ; history of, 90 

Voltaire, his philosophy character- 
ized, 85; Carlyle finds difficulty 
in writing on, 135; Carlyle's 
paper on, 140 

Wages, disparity of, 159 

Waller, SirW., Parliamentary gen- 
eral, beaten at Landsdown and 
Roundway, 8 ; retakes Arundel, 
9 ; defeats Royalists at Arlesford, 
9 ; loses king at Worcester, 10 

Waller (the poet), betrayed to the 
Parliament, 6; arraigned by 
Parliament and banished to Ber- 
muda, 6 

Washington, coupled with Hamb- 
den by Carlyle, 7 

Werner, Zacharias, life by Hitzig, 
82; his "Mutter der Makka- 
baer," 82; his history, 82; Car- 
lyle's opinion of, 83 

Whigs, contrasted with Utilitarians, 
172 ; the grand " Dilettanti," 

Whole, as to the constitution of a, 

* 8 7 

Wieland, meets Schiller, 36; in- 
duces Schiller to join the " Teut- 
sches Mercur," 36; opposes the 
" new philosophy," 45 ; his 
reason for doing so, 45, 46 

Williams, Archbishop of York, "a 
very queer man," 2 

Winckelmann, quotation from, 106; 
"the only two modern Friends, 
106; Goethe's opinion of, 107; 
quotations from, 107 

Wolff, most characteristic writing 
of, 119 

Wollstonecraft, Mary, life by God- 
win, 204 ; epitomized by Carlyle, 

Wonder, the basis of worship, 162; 
the reign of, 162 

Worcester, Scots defeated at, 17 

Words, the strangest and most po- 
tent product of our nature, 176 

Works Carlyle would like to see 
written, 119, 120 

Writers, Spanish, 108, 109 

Writing, Carlyle on, 136 

"Youth, happy limitedness of," 128